Article

An estimate of the prevalence of dementia in Africa: A systematic analysis

Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
Journal of global health 12/2012; 2(2):20401. DOI: 10.7189/jogh.02.020401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The burden of non-communicable diseases is growing, particularly in developing countries. The greatest economic burden is due to dementia, the prevalence of which is rising with increasing longevity. In Africa, where the rate of increase of elderly persons is the fastest in the world, dementia is normally dismissed as a part of normal ageing. The lack of awareness means that many patients are suffering undiagnosed. This review aims to assess the information on the prevalence of dementia in Africa in order to estimate the current burden.
A parallel search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health limited to post-1980 found only 10 relevant studies. Data on prevalence and risk factors were extracted and analysed. We modelled the available information and used the UN population figures for Africa to determine the age-specific and overall burden of dementia.
The overall prevalence of dementia in adults older than 50 years in Africa was estimated to be about 2.4%, which translates to 2.76 million people living with a disease in 2010. About 2.10 millions of them live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prevalence was the highest among females aged 80 and over (19.7%) and there was little variation between regions. Alzheimer disease was the most prevalent cause of dementia (57.1%) followed by vascular dementia (26.9%). The main risk factors were increasing age, female sex and cardiovascular disease.
Information on dementia prevalence in Africa is very limited. Further research will not only provide a more reliable estimate of prevalence, and consequently the burden of disease, but will also raise awareness of the problem. This is critical in promoting help-seeking behaviour and generating the political commitment to make dementia a public health priority in Africa.

1 Follower
 · 
97 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:908915. DOI:10.1155/2014/908915 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In high-income countries with ageing populations, delirium is most prevalent in older adults and in palliative and intensive care settings. The prevalence and aetiology of delirium are likely to differ in low income countries, including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to different population demographics, disease burden and exposure to pathogens. We reviewed published literature relating to the prevalence, clinical features and underlying causes of delirium in SSA and compare this with that published in high-income countries in order to identify knowledge and clinical service gaps, and priorities for further research.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 11/2014; 348(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.10.034 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Dementia is one of the most frequent disorders among elderly patients, reaching to epidemic proportions with an estimated 4.6 million new cases globally annually. Partially effective treatments are available for dementia. Aims & Objectives. We aim to study drugs used in dementia and find out frequency of types of Dementia. Method. This was an observational study conducted at rurally based tertiary care hospital. Prospective data was collected from outpatient department, while retrospective data was collected from medical records. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Result. Total 125 prescriptions of patients diagnosed with dementia were analyzed. Alzheimer's dementia was most common (65.6%), followed by vascular dementia (21.6%), and frontotemporal dementia (10.4%), with the rarest being Lewy body dementia in (2.4%) cases. 60.57% of patients were males. Mini Mental Score Examination mean score was 15.93 ± 1.37. Frontal Battery Assessment mean score was 4.75 ± 1.01. Prescribed drugs were Donepezil (68.49%), Rivastigmine (13.63%), Donepezil + Memantine (6.43%) and Galantamine (12.83%), Quetiapine (38.46%), Lorazepam (23.07%), Clozapine (11.53%), Escitalopram (10.25%), Haloperidol (3.84%), Zolpidem, Sertraline, Olanzepine (2.56%), Nitrazepine, Lamotrigine, Fluoxetine, Tianeptine (1.28%), Folic acid, and Vitamin B12, respectively. Conclusion. Alzheimer's is the most common type of dementia while Donepezil was the most frequent drug.
    08/2014; 2014:435202. DOI:10.1155/2014/435202

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
27 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014