Altered Functional and Structural Connectivity in a Schizophrenia Patient With Complete Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University, Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 01/2013; 170(1):122-3. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12060822
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    • "Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that represents the 18th leading cause of years lived with disability globally (Whiteford et al., 2013) and has an estimated point prevalence of 0.5% to 1.0% (Tandon et al., 2008). Functional and structural disconnectivity are among the most reproducible neurophysiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia (Burns et al., 2003; Whalley et al., 2005; Liang et al., 2006; Begre and Koenig, 2008; Konrad and Winterer, 2008; Hoptman et al., 2010; Qiu et al., 2010; Whitford et al., 2011; Shi et al., 2012a,b; Curčić-Blake et al., 2013; Rane et al., 2013; Straube et al., 2013; Tepest et al., 2013) (recently reviewed by Schmitt et al. (2011)). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neuroinflammation and white matter pathology have each been independently associated with schizophrenia, and experimental studies have revealed mechanisms by which the two can interact in vitro, but whether these abnormalities simultaneously co-occur in people with schizophrenia remains unclear. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science from inception through 12 January 2014 for studies reporting human data on the relationship between microglial or astroglial activation, or cytokines and white matter pathology in schizophrenia. Results: Fifteen studies totaling 792 subjects (350 with schizophrenia, 346 controls, 49 with bipolar disorder, 37 with major depressive disorder and 10 with Alzheimer's disease) met all eligibility criteria. Five neuropathological and two neuroimaging studies collectively yielded consistent evidence of an association between schizophrenia and microglial activation, particularly in white rather than gray matter regions. Ultrastructural analysis revealed activated microglia near dystrophic and apoptotic oligodendroglia, demyelinating and dysmyelinating axons and swollen and vacuolated astroglia in subjects with schizophrenia but not controls. Two neuroimaging studies found an association between carrier status for a functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the interleukin-1β gene and abnormal white as well as gray matter volumes in schizophrenia but not controls. A neuropathological study found that orbitofrontal white matter neuronal density was increased in schizophrenia cases exhibiting high transcription levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines relative to those exhibiting low transcription levels and to controls. Schizophrenia was associated with decreased astroglial density specifically in subgenual cingulate white matter and anterior corpus callosum, but not other gray or white matter areas. Astrogliosis was consistently absent. Data on astroglial gene expression, mRNA expression and protein concentration were inconsistent. Conclusion: Neuroinflammation is associated with white matter pathology in people with schizophrenia, and may contribute to structural and functional disconnectivity, even at the first episode of psychosis.
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    ABSTRACT: Agenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of corpus callosum with a good neuropsychological profile. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the third most common cause of cortical dementia, and it is characterized by alterations in personality and social relationship, often associated with deficits in attention, abstraction, planning, and problem solving. Herein, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with FTD associated with primary AgCC. The possible "causal or casual" relationship between these 2 different conditions should be investigated in large prospective studies.
    American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 09/2014; 30(4). DOI:10.1177/1533317514549410 · 1.63 Impact Factor