Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease in rats.
ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease in rats. 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model involves chronic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, and the loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is the predominant lesion. Resveratrol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory actions, and thus was tested for its beneficial effects using 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were unilaterally injected with 6-OHDA (5 microg/2 microl) into the right striatum, and the striatum damage was assessed by rotational test, ultrahistopathology, and molecular alterations. Resveratrol (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) was then given orally to Parkinson's disease rats, daily for 10 weeks to examine the protective effects. Rotational test (turns of rats) showed that resveratrol significantly attenuated apomorphine-induced turns of rats in 6-OHDA-injuried Parkinson's disease rat model as early as two weeks of administration. Ultrastructural analysis showed that resveratrol alleviated 6-OHDA-induced chromatin condensation, mitochondrial tumefaction and vacuolization of dopaminergic neurons in rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment also significantly decreased the levels of COX-2 and TNF-alpha mRNA in the substantia nigra as detected by real-time RT-PCR. COX-2 protein expression in the substantia nigra was also decreased as evidenced by Western blotting. These results demonstrate that resveratrol exerts a neuroprotective effect on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease rat model, and this protection is related to the reduced inflammatory reaction.
Article: Amelioration of rotenone-induced dopaminergic cell death in the striatum by oxytocin treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxytocin (OT) is essentially associated with uterine contraction during parturition and milk ejection reflex. Although several studies implicate the role of OT in anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways, there is a lack of data with regard to the protective effects of oxytocin in neurodegenerative models such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of oxytocin (OT) on rotenone-induced PD in rats. Twenty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with rotenone (3μg/μl in DMSO) or vehicle (1μl DMSO) into the left substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) under stereotaxic surgery, and PD model was assessed by rotational test ten days after drug infusion. The valid PD rats were randomly divided into two groups; Group 1 (n=7) and Group 2 (n=7) were administered saline (1ml/kg/day, i.p.) and oxytocin (160μg/kg/day, i.p.) through 20 days, respectively. The effects of OT treatment were evaluated by behavioral, histological and immunohistochemical parameters. Apomorphine-induced stereotypic rotations in PD rats were significantly inhibited by OT treatment (p<0.05). In addition, immunohistochemical studies clearly demonstrated the suppression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8 and elevation of Bcl-2 and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoexpression in OT-treated rats compared to saline group. Our findings suggest that oxytocin may have cytoprotective and restorative effects on dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced injury. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of apoptotic pathways.Peptides 09/2012; · 2.43 Impact Factor
Article: Cognitive performances are selectively enhanced during chronic caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation in a primate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group.Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals.The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16581. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Resveratrol exerts dosage and duration dependent effect on human mesenchymal stem cell development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies in the past have illuminated the potential benefit of resveratrol as an anticancer (pro-apoptosis) and life-extending (pro-survival) compound. However, these two different effects were observed at different concentration ranges. Studies of resveratrol in a wide range of concentrations on the same cell type are lacking, which is necessary to comprehend its diverse and sometimes contradictory cellular effects. In this study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on cell self-renewal and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a type of adult stem cells that reside in a number of tissues, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 µM after both short- and long-term exposure. Our results reveal that at 0.1 µM, resveratrol promotes cell self-renewal by inhibiting cellular senescence, whereas at 5 µM or above, resveratrol inhibits cell self-renewal by increasing senescence rate, cell doubling time and S-phase cell cycle arrest. At 1 µM, its effect on cell self-renewal is minimal but after long-term exposure it exerts an inhibitory effect, accompanied with increased senescence rate. At all concentrations, resveratrol promotes osteogenic differentiation in a dosage dependent manner, which is offset by its inhibitory effect on cell self-renewal at high concentrations. On the contrary, resveratrol suppresses adipogenic differentiation during short-term exposure but promotes this process after long-term exposure. Our study implicates that resveratrol is the most beneficial to stem cell development at 0.1 µM and caution should be taken in applying resveratrol as an anticancer therapeutic agent or nutraceutical supplement due to its dosage dependent effect on hMSCs.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37162. · 4.09 Impact Factor