Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates in the United States, 2004-2010.
ABSTRACT While much is known about the geographic distribution of different clonal types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), few studies have assessed the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), despite its continued clinical importance. In each US Census region, reference laboratories collected successive MSSA isolates from patients with invasive or superficial staphylococcal infections for use in the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial. All isolates from 2004-5 and 2009-10 underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and characterization of their staphylococcal protein A (spa) type. Of the 708 isolates analyzed, 274 spa types were identified and divided into 15 genetic clusters. The most common clones were spa t002 (n=63, 8.9%) and t008 (n=56, 7.9%). While the distribution of predominant spa types was not different by US Census region or time period, spa t008 was nearly twice as common in community skin and soft tissue infections compared with nosocomial bloodstream infections (11.1% v. 5.6%, respectively, p=.008). Despite such differences, both community and nosocomial settings had diverse staphylococcal clonal types representing all major spa clusters. In contrast to MRSA, MSSA infectious isolates show wide genetic diversity without clear geographical or temporal clustering. Notably, the prevalent MSSA strains (spa t002 and spa t008) are analogous to the predominant MRSA clones, further demonstrating the importance of these lineages.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2013; DOI:10.1093/cid/cit685 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens that causes bacteremia; therefore, it is important to understand the long-term molecular epidemiology of S. aureus bacteremia infections. In particular, little is known about the population structure of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) compared to that of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. We investigated potential changes in the MSSA molecular epidemiology in Örebro County, Sweden, from 1980 through 2010. 400 MSSA bacteremia isolates, the first 100 isolated each decade from 1980 through 2010, were retrospectively identified and analyzed regarding assignment to clonal complexes (CCs), presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistant determinants with DNA microarray-based genotyping. 24 different CCs were identified. Most isolates (80%) belonged to 6 predominant lineages. Of those, the number of isolates assigned to CC5 and CC15 increased, and those assigned to CC8, CC25, and CC30 decreased. The most prevalent clone, CC45, did not show a significant change in prevalence during the study period. A change in prevalence was observed for some of the virulence genes, mainly attributed with their association to certain CCs. With the exception of the common blaZ gene (encoding penicillinase), antibiotic resistance genes were only sporadically detected. In conclusion, the MSSA population structure was genetically diverse. We observed decadal changes in assignments to five predominant clones, and corresponding changes in the prevalence of some virulence genes linked to CC affiliation. In light of the restrictive antibiotics prescriptions and extensive infection control procedures in Sweden, antibiotic resistance genes were rarely detected and their prevalence unaffected during the study period.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114276. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114276 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat biological warfare in the future.Virulence 09/2013; 4(8). DOI:10.4161/viru.26475 · 3.32 Impact Factor