Brain Reactivity Differentiates Subjects with High and Low Dream Recall Frequencies during Both Sleep and Wakefulness

Brain Dynamics and Cognition Team, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CRNL), INSERM, CNRS, Lyon F-69500, France.
Cerebral Cortex (Impact Factor: 8.67). 01/2013; 24(5). DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhs388
Source: PubMed


The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

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Available from: Jb Eichenlaub, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "ait variable that can contribute to the episodic memory recall . Once again , the data appear consistent with the continuity hypothesis between mechanisms involved in cognitive processes across sleep and wakefulness . The same group demonstrated that High Recallers show a greater intrasleep wake - fulness than Low Recallers ( Ruby et al . , 2013 ; Eichenlaub et al . , 2014b ) . This result also provides some support to the arousal - retrieval model ( Koulack and Goodenough , 1976 ) . The model assumes that the information processing of dream mentation and the subsequent retrieval are facilitated if awakenings occur during sleep . The nocturnal awakenings could promote the transition of mnestic traces ( i ."
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    ABSTRACT: Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5–8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state-or trait-like differences.
    Frontiers in Psychology 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00605 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Resultsshowthatinfrequenthabitualdreamrecallisassoci- atedwithalowerbaselinelevelofvisuomotorskillthanis frequentrecall.Thiswasdemonstratedbyinferiorperformance bythelow-DRFgrouponfirstadministrationoftheMTT,and wasattributabletoslowercompletiontimeratherthanto commissionofmarkedlymoreerrors.Thisdifference,together withthedemonstrablylowerquantityandclarityofdream contentreportedfromREMsleepbythelow-DRFgroup,is consistentwithourexpectationthatstrongvisuomotorskills areimplicatedindreamproduction–oratleastinthecapacity torecalldreamcontentinsomedetail.Theimplicationof visuomotorskillsindreamingisconsistentwithdevelopmental findings(Foulkes,1982)thatdreamproductiondependsupon visuospatialskill;childrenwhoperformpoorlyontheWAIS blockdesign,whichrequiresvisuospatialskills,alsoreport shorter,moreprosaicandlessdynamicdreams.Similarly, adultswhoscorelowontheWAISblockdesignrecallfewer dreamsafterREMsleepawakenings(48.5%)thandothose whoscorehigh(85%seeButlerandWatson,1985;seealso Goodenoughetal.,1959).Yetothershavereportedalink betweenhigh-DRFandhighvisualmemory(Schredletal., 1997)andmorecomplexcognitiveprocessingofexternal stimuliduringREMsleep(Eichenlaubetal.,2014a).Notwith- standingsuchfindings,alinkbetweenhigh-DRFand advancedvisuospatialabilitiesremainsfarfromproved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although sleep facilitates learning and memory, the roles of dreaming and habitual levels of recalling dreams remain unknown. This study examined if performance and overnight improvement on a rapid eye movement sleep-sensitive visuomotor task is associated differentially with habitually high or low dream recall frequency. As a relation between dream production and visuospatial skills has been demonstrated previously, one possibility is that frequency of dream recall will be linked to performance on visuomotor tasks such as the Mirror Tracing Task. We expected that habitually low dream recallers would perform more poorly on the Mirror Tracing Task than would high recallers and would show less task improvement following a night of sleep. Fifteen low and 20 high dream recallers slept one night each in the laboratory and performed the Mirror Tracing Task before and after sleep. Low recallers had overall worse baseline performance but a greater evening-to-morning improvement than did high recallers. Greater improvements in completion time in low recallers were associated with Stage 2 rather than rapid eye movement sleep. Findings support the separate notions that dreaming is related to visuomotor processes and that different levels of visuomotor skill engage different sleep- and dream-related consolidation mechanisms. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
    Journal of Sleep Research 02/2015; 24(4). DOI:10.1111/jsr.12286 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    • "The stimuli were presented in a pseudo-randomized order so that 1) each Deviant followed at least two Standards, 2) each Novel followed at least ten tones, and 3) Novels were always preceded by a standard tone. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set at 650 ms, except for the Standard following a Novel, which appeared 1260 ms after the Novel onset, whatever the duration of the Novel [29], [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms involved in the processing of alerting meaningful sounds during sleep, investigating alpha activity. During EEG acquisition, subjects were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm including rare complex sounds called Novels (the own first name - OWN, and an unfamiliar first name - OTHER) while they were watching a silent movie in the evening or sleeping at night. During the experimental night, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. During wakefulness, the decrease in alpha power (8-12 Hz) induced by Novels was significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at parietal electrodes, between 600 and 900 ms after stimulus onset. Conversely, during REM sleep, Novels induced an increase in alpha power (from 0 to 1200 ms at all electrodes), significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at several parietal electrodes between 700 and 1200 ms after stimulus onset. These results show that complex sounds have a different effect on the alpha power during wakefulness (decrease) and during REM sleep (increase) and that OWN induce a specific effect in these two states. The increased alpha power induced by Novels during REM sleep may 1) correspond to a short and transient increase in arousal; in this case, our study provides an objective measure of the greater arousing power of OWN over OTHER, 2) indicate a cortical inhibition associated with sleep protection. These results suggest that alpha modulation could participate in the selection of stimuli to be further processed during sleep.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79989. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079989 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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