Sinovenous thrombosis (SVT) is a well-recognized and serious complication in children treated for acute leukemia. This frequently occurs during or immediately upon completion of induction therapy and is commonly attributed to asparaginase therapy.Headache is the first and most common clinical symptom to occur during the early development of SVT. With advancement of the thrombosis, the clinical symptoms can progress to increased sleepiness, focal neurological deficit, seizures, and altered consciousness. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented after several days of headaches and anorexia, which then progressed to seizures, left-sided weakness, and altered consciousness. She was later found to have a widespread and occlusive SVT with right cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. This case is notable for the extensive nature of the cerebral SVT and the child's complete clinical recovery from the neurological event. The report discusses the relation of the thrombosis and leukemia and also emphasizes the importance of early recognition and prompt management, while incorporating a collaborative multidisciplinary approach to prevent long-term consequences.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of thrombosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) reportedly ranges between 1% and 37%. Epidemiologic studies have usually been hampered by small numbers, making accurate estimates of thrombosis risk in ALL patients very difficult. The aim of this study was to better estimate the frequency of this complication and to define how the disease, its treatment, and the host contribute to its occurrence. We made an attempt to combine and analyze all published data on the association between pediatric ALL and thrombosis, by using a meta-analytic method. The rate of thrombosis in 1752 children from 17 prospective studies was 5.2% (95% CI: 4.2-6.4). The risk varies depending on several factors. Most of the events occurred during the induction phase of therapy. Lower doses of asparaginase (ASP) for long periods were associated with the highest incidence of thrombosis, as were anthracyclines and prednisone (instead of dexamethasone). The presence of central lines and of thrombophilic genetic abnormalities also appeared to be frequently associated with thrombosis. In conclusion, the overall thrombotic risk in ALL children was significant, and the subgroup analysis was able to identify high-risk individuals, a finding that will hopefully guide future prospective studies aimed at decreasing this risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at an increased risk of thromboembolic events. Potential responsible mechanisms include the disease process itself, treatment with chemotherapeutic agents (particularly L-Asparaginase [ASP]), or a combination of the disease and treatment. We studied thrombin regulation in 26 consecutive children with ALL and 14 healthy age-matched controls by: (1) plasma concentrations of prothrombin; (2) plasma inhibition of 125I-alpha-thrombin; and (3) four biochemical markers of in vivo thrombin activation (thrombin complexed to its inhibitor antithrombin III [ATIII; TAT], prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), activated protein C complexed to the inhibitors alpha 1 antitrypsin [APCAT]), and protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI). Measurements were made at presentation before treatment, after treatment with ASP alone, and during combination chemotherapy with and without ASP. At presentation, the capacity to generate thrombin (reflected by plasma prothrombin concentrations) and the capacity to inhibit thrombin (125I-alpha-thrombin--inhibitor complex formation) were similar in children with ALL compared with that for healthy children. After ASP alone or as part of combination chemotherapy, prothrombin levels were preserved, whereas plasma inhibition of 125I-alpha-thrombin decreased significantly because of a decrease in plasma concentrations of inhibitors, most importantly ATIII. After combination chemotherapy without ASP, plasma concentrations of ATIII and the capacity to inhibit 125I-alpha-thrombin returned to normal values, whereas prothrombin levels increased above control values. Thrombin generation in vivo also differed from healthy controls. At presentation, plasma concentrations of three of four markers of in vivo thrombin activity (TAT, F1.2, APCAT, but not APC-PCI) were increased in children with ALL. Neither ASP alone nor combination chemotherapy with or without ASP significantly altered values of these three markers. In summary, although the in vitro capacity to generate thrombin was preserved, the in vitro capacity to inhibit 125I-alpha-thrombin decreased after ASP therapy. Evidence for increased endogenous thrombin generation was documented in children with ALL at presentation and throughout treatment. We speculate that poor regulation of this thrombin may contribute to thrombotic complications in children with ALL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma concentrations of endogenous thrombin generation markers and thrombotic events have been reported in children with leukemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cancer and its treatment on thrombin generation (TAT levels) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The authors evaluated 32 children (23 M, 9 F) aged between 1 and 15 years (mean 6) affected by ALL (immunophenotypic subgroups: 16 common, 7 T, and 9 pre-B type). In all patients TAT levels at onset and after 5-6 doses of L-asparaginase were evaluated. TAT levels were higher in patients both at onset (13.04 +/- 10.90 ng/L) and after the 5-6 doses of L-asp (19.41 +/- 11.05 ng/L) with respect to controls (4 +/- 1 ng/L) (p < .001 and p < .001). TAT levels after 5-6 doses of L-asp were higher than those at onset (p < .001). Factorial ANOVA showed that at onset there was a significant effect of leukemia immunophenotypic subgroups upon TAT levels (p < .05) and no effect of inherited thrombotic risk factors. These results indicate that in children with ALL an important role is played by acquired thrombotic risk factors, among which the indirect cancer procoagulant activity has its importance.
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