Hand hygiene and anesthesiology.

Departments of *Medicine †Epidemiology and Public Health §Anesthesiology University of Miami Miller School of Medicine ‡Jackson Memorial Hospital Miami, Florida.
International anesthesiology clinics 01/2013; 51(1):79-92. DOI: 10.1097/AIA.0b013e31826f2db6
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the frequency of acquisition of bacterial pathogens on investigators' hands after contacting environmental surfaces near hospitalized patients. Hand imprint cultures were positive for one or more pathogens after contacting surfaces near 34 (53%) of 64 study patients, with Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus being the most common isolates.
    Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 03/2004; 25(2):164-7. DOI:10.1086/502369 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The roles of the contaminated hospital environment and of patient skin carriage in the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are uncertain. Transfer of VRE via health care worker (HCW) hands is assumed but unproved. We sought to determine the frequency of VRE transmission from sites in the environment or on patients' intact skin to clean environmental or skin sites via contaminated hands of HCWs during routine care. We cultured sites on the intact skin of 22 patients colonized by VRE, as well as sites in the patients' rooms, before and after routine care by 98 HCWs. Observers recorded sites touched by HCWs. Cultures were obtained from HCW hands and/or gloves before and after care. All isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We defined a transfer to have occurred when a culture-negative site became positive with a VRE pulsotype after being touched by an HCW who had the same pulsotype on his or her hands or gloves and who had previously touched a colonized or contaminated site. Health care workers touched 151 negative sites after touching a site that was positive for VRE. Sixteen negative sites (10.6%) became positive after contact. The percentage of times that contact with a site led to a transfer was highest for antecubital fossae and blood pressure cuffs. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were transferred from contaminated sites in the environment or on patients' intact skin to clean sites via HCW hands or gloves in 10.6% of opportunities. Controlling VRE by decontaminating the environment and patients' intact skin may be an important adjunctive infection control measure.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 03/2005; 165(3):302-7. DOI:10.1001/archinte.165.3.302 · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hand hygiene is a vital intervention to reduce health-care associated infections, but compliance remains low. The authors hypothesized that improvements in intraoperative hand hygiene compliance would reduce transmission of bacteria to surgical patients and reduce the incidence of postsurgical healthcare-associated infections. The authors performed a controlled before-and-after study over 2 consecutive months. One hundred fourteen operative cases were enrolled. Two predesignated sites on the anesthesia machine were selected, decontaminated, and cultured via aseptic technique. These sites and the peripheral intravenous stopcock were cultured again after completion of the surgery. The treatment phase used a novel personal hand-decontamination device capable of recording hand-decontamination events. There were no significant differences in patient location, age, or case duration and procedure type between groups. Use of the Sprixx GJ device (Harbor Medical Inc., Santa Barbara, CA) increased hourly hand decontamination events by 27-fold as compared with baseline rates (P < 0.002; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-13.4). Use of the device was associated with a reduction in contamination in the anesthesia work area and peripheral intravenous tubing. Intravenous tubing contamination was identified in 32.8% of cases in the control group versus 7.5% in the treatment group (odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.51; P < 0.01). Healthcare-associated infections rates were reduced in the device group (3.8%) as compared with the control group (17.2%) (odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.81; P = 0.02). Improved hand hygiene compliance through the use of a novel hand sanitation strategy reduces the risk of intraoperative bacterial transmission. The intervention was associated with a reduction in healthcare-associated infections.
    Anesthesiology 04/2009; 110(5):978-85. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181a06ec3 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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