Calcium intake, vascular calcification, and vascular disease
ABSTRACT Recent research has reported a possible link between calcium supplementation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and its endpoints in healthy, older adults. To evaluate the current evidence regarding the impact of calcium supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk and to address research gaps, the present review was conducted. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, when available, along with original articles. The articles included in the review were obtained from PubMed using the following search terms: calcium intake, calcium supplementation, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, mortality, and vascular calcification. The majority of the studies reviewed demonstrated no statistically significant adverse or beneficial effect of calcium supplementation on cardiovascular disease or its endpoints. While some studies indicate a possible increased risk, there is a lack of consensus on these findings and a need exists to further elucidate a mechanism. More experimental data are necessary to understand the impact of calcium intake, both levels and sources, on vascular calcification and vascular disease. The use of (41) C kinetic modeling in the Ossabaw swine provides an approach for assessing soft tissue calcification in an atherosclerotic and normal state to address research gaps.
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ABSTRACT: Background Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the controversy.Methods We identified relevant studies by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases between 1 September 2013 and 30 December 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were also reviewed. Observational prospective studies that reported relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the association of calcium intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific relative risks were pooled using a random-effects model.ResultsIn this meta-analysis, 11 prospective studies with 12 independent cohorts, involving 757,304 participants, were eligible. There was evidence of a non-linear association between dietary calcium intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (P for non-linearity <0.01) and all causes (P for non-linearity <0.01). A dose-response analysis showed a U-shaped relationship between dietary calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality. Intakes that were lower and higher than around 800 mg/day were gradually associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. For all-cause mortality, we also observed a threshold effect at intakes around 900 mg/day. The risk of all-cause mortality did not decrease further at intakes above 900 mg/day.Conclusions This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies suggests that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular mortality in a U-shaped manner and that high dietary calcium intake (>900 mg/day) is not associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality.BMC Medicine 09/2014; 12(1):158. DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0158-6 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alteration in homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) predispose to vascular calcification that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data on this aspect are scarce in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (SIH). The aim was to assess the effect of altered calcium, phosphate and PTH homeostasis in patients with SIH on intima media thickness (IMT), a surrogate marker of increased vascular risk. In this case-control study, we measured carotid IMT (CIMT), aortic IMT (AIMT) and renal arteries IMT (RIMT) in 30 consecutive patients with SIH, and compared with healthy subjects. IMT was measured by ultrasound by a single operator blinded to subject's details. CIMT, AIMT, RIMT values in patients with SIH were significantly more than healthy subjects (0.60 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.09 mm, P = 0.001; 0.73 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.10, P = 0.004; and 0.34 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.30 ± 0.05, P = 0.003, respectively). Clinical or biochemical parameters did not correlate with CIMT, AIMT and RIMT in patients with SIH. The vascular risk is increased in patients with SIH as assessed by CIMT, AIMT, and RIMT.03/2015; 19(2):262-266. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.149320
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ABSTRACT: Objective To study the relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV in Chinese subjects. Methods The relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV was studied in 9 615 subjects. The mean value of left and right BaPWV was analyzed. BaPWV was defined as high when it was. 1 752.5 cm/s (the upper quartile) either side. Results The BaPWV and its elevated percentage progressively increased across the quartiles of the serum calcium level (P<0.05). The prevalence of elevated BaPWV was significantly higher in subjects of the second, third and highest quartiles than in those of the lowest quartile (26.9%, 28.4%, and 33.2% vs 23.7%, P=0.0116, P=0.0004, and P<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of elevated BaPWV was 1.32-fold higher in subjects of the highest quartile than in those of the lowest quartile (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60). Conclusion The elevated serum calcium level is related to an elevated BaPWV and a higher risk of arterial stiffness, independent of conventional risk factors, in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 08/2014; 27(8):594-600. DOI:10.3967/bes2014.091 · 1.26 Impact Factor