Article

The vasculome of the mouse brain.

Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 12/2012; 7(12):e52665. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052665
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The blood vessel is no longer viewed as passive plumbing for the brain. Increasingly, experimental and clinical findings suggest that cerebral endothelium may possess endocrine and paracrine properties - actively releasing signals into and receiving signals from the neuronal parenchyma. Hence, metabolically perturbed microvessels may contribute to central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Furthermore, cerebral endothelium can serve as sensors and integrators of CNS dysfunction, releasing measurable biomarkers into the circulating bloodstream. Here, we define and analyze the concept of a brain vasculome, i.e. a database of gene expression patterns in cerebral endothelium that can be linked to other databases and systems of CNS mediators and markers. Endothelial cells were purified from mouse brain, heart and kidney glomeruli. Total RNA were extracted and profiled on Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 micro-arrays. Gene expression analysis confirmed that these brain, heart and glomerular preparations were not contaminated by brain cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons), cardiomyocytes or kidney tubular cells respectively. Comparison of the vasculome between brain, heart and kidney glomeruli showed that endothelial gene expression patterns were highly organ-dependent. Analysis of the brain vasculome demonstrated that many functionally active networks were present, including cell adhesion, transporter activity, plasma membrane, leukocyte transmigration, Wnt signaling pathways and angiogenesis. Analysis of representative genome-wide-association-studies showed that genes linked with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke were detected in the brain vasculome. Finally, comparison of our mouse brain vasculome with representative plasma protein databases demonstrated significant overlap, suggesting that the vasculome may be an important source of circulating signals in blood. Perturbations in cerebral endothelial function may profoundly affect CNS homeostasis. Mapping and dissecting the vasculome of the brain in health and disease may provide a novel database for investigating disease mechanisms, assessing therapeutic targets and exploring new biomarkers for the CNS.

1 Bookmark
 · 
146 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Common methods for studying angiogenesis in vitro include the tube formation assay, the migration assay, and the study of the endothelial genome. The formation of capillary-like tubes in vitro on basement membrane matrix mimics many steps of the angiogenesis process in vivo and is used widely as a screening test for angiogenic or antiangiogenic factors. Other assays related to the study of angiogenesis include the cell migration assay, the study of gene expression changes during the process of angiogenesis, and the study of endothelial-derived microparticles. Protocols for these procedures will be described here.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1135:393-402. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-0320-7_32 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The neurovascular unit is now well accepted as a conceptual framework for investigating the mechanisms of ischemic stroke. From a molecular and cellular perspective, three broad mechanisms may underlie stroke pathophysiology - excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, however, most investigations of these basic mechanisms have focused on neuronal responses. In this mini-review, we ask whether these mechanisms of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation can also be examined in terms of non-neuronal interactions in the neurovascular unit, including the release of extracellular vesicles for cell-cell signaling.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 12/2013; DOI:10.2174/0929867321666131228223400 · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell (EC) function and susceptibility to vascular disease are regulated by flow; this relationship has been modeled in systemic, but not cerebrovascular, EC culture. We studied the effects of unidirectional flow of medium, produced by orbital rotation of cultures, on morphology and protein expression in bEnd.3 mouse brain ECs. Flow altered the expression of key transcription factors and gasotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes, and increased NO production. Statins and angiotensin receptor blockers reproduced the effect of flow on endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Thus, flow modified brain EC properties and function in vitro, with similarities and possible differences compared to previous studies on systemic ECs. Thus, the effect of flow on brain ECs can be modeled in vitro and may assist the investigation of mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease.
    Vascular Pharmacology 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vph.2014.02.003 · 4.62 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from