Organic manure management on groundnut; A review
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ABSTRACT: Field trials were carried out between 2002 and 2005 to investigate the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic dairy farming system with arable land and grassland on nutrient cycling, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop yields within a cropping system comprising a whole crop rotation. Five treatments were carried out: (i) solid farmyard manure, (ii) undigested liquid slurry, (iii) digested liquid slurry, (iv) digestion of liquid slurry and field residues such as crop residues and cover crops, and (v) similar to iv, but with additional N inputs at the equivalent of 40kgNha−1 farmland through digestion of purchased substrates. The term “manure” is used in the present study to mean all kind of aboveground organic residues left on the field (“immobile manures”, such as crop residues and green manures incorporated directly into the soil) or added as stable wastes or effluents of biogas digestion (“mobile manures”). The total aboveground biomass growth and the overall aboveground N uptake of non-legume maincrops were higher in the liquid slurry manure treatment than in the solid farmyard manure system (+5% and +9%, respectively). The digestion of the liquid slurry increased N uptake and crop yields only after soil incorporation of the slurry shortly after field spreading. The additional collection and digestion of field residues such as cover crops and crop residues, combined with a reallocation of the effluents, strongly increased the amounts of “mobile” manure, allowing a more focussed allocation of the available N. This led to an increase in the aboveground N uptake (+12%) and biomass yield (+4%) of the five non-legume crops, due to a better adapted allocation of nutrients in space and time. Results obtained with spring wheat showed that removal of cover crops in autumn, and their digestion, combined with subsequent use as manure in spring resulted in a better synchronisation of the crop N demand and the soil N availability, in comparison with a strategy where the biomass was left on the field as green (immobile) manure. The inclusion of external substrates led to a further increase of 8% in N uptake, but not to a significant increase in aboveground dry matter yields.Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 10/2008; 82(3):209-232. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pot and field investigations were conducted to study the effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculation and triple superphosphate fertilization on nodulation, dry matter yield and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents of Bradyrhizobium-inoculated soya-bean and lablab bean in the Sudan.Inoculation of both crops with the VAM fungus Glomus mosseae in clay and sandy soils in pots increased nodulation, dry matter yield and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus contents more than triple superphosphate fertilizer, but even greater responses were obtained from G. mosseae combined with fertilizer. Crop responses in the two soils were similar, despite the large differences in soil physico-chemical properties.In the field, inoculation of both crops with any of four VAM fungi enhanced nodulation, dry matter yield and plant nitrogen and phosphorus contents more than did triple superphosphate. Gigaspora margarita and Glomus mosseae were superior to Gigaspora calospora and Acaulospora species and resulted in more extensive root infection, especially in soyabean.Experimental Agriculture 09/1992; 28(04):399 - 408. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Historically, manure has been recognized as an excellent soil amendment that can improve soil quality and provide nutrients for crop production. In areas of high animal density, however, the potential for water pollution resulting from improper storage or disposal of manure may be significant. The objective of this study was to determine the P balance of cultivated soils under barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production that have received long-term annual manure amendments. Nonirrigated soils at the study site in Lethbridge, AB, Canada, have received 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg manure ha(-1) (wet wt. basis) while irrigated plots received 0, 60, 120, and 180 Mg ha(-1) annually for 16 yr. The amount of P removed in barley grain and straw during the 16-yr period was between 5 and 18% of the cumulative manure P applied. There was a balance between P applied in manure and P recovered in crops and soils (to the 150-cm depth) of nonirrigated plots during the 16-yr study. In irrigated plots, as much as 1.4 Mg P ha(-1) added (180 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) treatment) was not recovered over 16 yr, and was probably lost through leaching. The risk of ground water contamination with P from manure was greater in irrigated than nonirrigated plots that have received long-term annual manure amendments. Manure application rates should be reduced in nonirrigated and irrigated plots to more closely match manure P inputs to crop P requirements.Journal of Environmental Quality 01/2001; 30(1):229-237. · 2.35 Impact Factor
Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 1(7), pp. 238-243, August 2012
Available online at http://www.wudpeckerresearchjournals.org
2012 Wudpecker Research Journals
Organic manure management on groundnut; A review
P. Veeramani, K. Subrahmaniyan and V. Ganesaraja
Centre of Excellence in Biofuels, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Accepted 02 May 2012
Groundnut is an unpredictable legume, since its response to nutrient application is always not
optimistic. Excessive application of nitrogen and potassium often resulted in excessive vegetative
growth. Considering the availability of the major elements in the soil and quantum of losses due to
leaching and/or fixation of the individual elements expected, a proper method and the time of nutrient
application are needs of the hour. These facts call for a concerted study on the possibility of more
effective utilization of nutrients in divided dosages like basal and top dressing. The review is aimed to
have better understanding on optimizing the nutrient requirement and uptake in increasing the pod
yield of groundnut and benefits of interactions between the organic and inorganic fertilizers. In this
paper, available literature on organic manure management practices viz., application of organic manure,
biofertilizers and foliar nutrient spray in groundnut and their interactive effects on crop growth and
yield are reviewed.
Key words: Groundnut; split application; nutrient; organic manure; fertilizers.
Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a specie in the legume
family (Fabaceae) native to South America, Mexico and
Central America. It is an annual herbaceous plant
growing to 30 to 50cm tall. The leaves are opposite,
pinnate with four leaflets (two opposite pairs; no terminal
leaflet), each leaflet 1 to 7 cm long and 1 to 3 cm broad.
The flowers are a typical pea flower in shape, 2 to 4cm
(¾ to 1½ inch) across, yellow with reddish veining. After
pollination, the fruit develops into a legume 3 to 7cm long,
containing 1 to 4 seeds, which forces its way
underground to mature. Groundnut is also known as
earthnuts, Peanuts, goobers, goober peas, pindas, jack
nuts, pinders, manila nuts, g-nuts, and monkey nuts; the
last of these is often used to mean the entire pod
(Annadurai et al., 2009).
The growth rate of oilseed crops in terms of production
was much higher after 1980’ s as compared to other crops
with the introduction of Technology Mission on Oil seeds
(TMO) in 1986 and it brought “ yellow revolution” in
oilseed crops in India. One among the factors for higher
production from groundnut after TMO was increase in
area rather than increase in the productivity. The
*Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.
productivity enhancement target is still elusive. Hence
with the increase in population, it is necessary to provide
edible oils to each of them. On the basis of minimum
requirement of oils and fats, it should be 5.49 million
tonnes, against the present production of only 2.9 million
tonnes, leaving a gap of 2.6 million tonnes. Meeting this
gap is the most important problem in India today. This
demand has been growing at the rate of six per cent per
annum in the last 13 years. This would only show that
there is an urgent need to step up oil seed production on
a sustainable basis.
The optimization of the mineral nutrition is the key to
optimize the production of groundnut, as it has very high
nutrient requirement and the recently released high
yielding groundnut varieties remove still more nutrients
from the soil. On contrary groundnut farmers, most part
of the semi-arid region use very less nutrient fertilizer and
sometime only one or two nutrients resulting in severe
mineral nutrient deficiencies due to inadequate and
imbalance use of nutrients is one of the major factors
responsible for low yield in groundnut. India is the
world’ s largest producer of groundnut where nutritional
disorders cause yield reduction from 30 to 70%
depending upon the soil types. Thus it is high time to look
into the mineral nutrition aspects of groundnut for
achieving high yield and advocate the suitable package
of practices for optimization of yield (Singh, 2004).
239 Wudpecker J. Agric. Res.
Nutrient management in groundnut
Oilseeds are energy-rich crops and hence the
requirement of major nutrients as well as secondary and
micronutrients is very high. The nutrient removal varies
considerably, depending upon crop productivity and soil
fertility (Hegde, 2000). Groundnut removes fairly large
quantities of nutrients from the soil. It depletes the soil
nutrients rapidly unless the soil is adequately manured.
Adequate manuring does not only improve the yield but
also maintains the soil health and sustain the productivity
(Lourduraj, 1999). Ghosh et al. (2002) further stressed
that proper fertilizer management of groundnut crop with
right kind of nutrients at right time adapting right method
of application has significant effect on yield and quality.
Parasuraman et al. (1998) reported higher availability of
plant nutrients consequently
parameters in the fertilized treatments and higher yield of
groundnut. Remunerative responses of groundnut crop to
fertilizer application have been observed both under
irrigated and rainfed conditions in India (Kanwar et al.,
1983). Increase in groundnut yield due to the application
of NPK was also reported by Angadi et al. (1990).
However Subrahmaniyan et al. (2000) reported that
application of NPK levels
recommended doses of fertilizer (17:34:54 kgNPKha-1)
gave significantly better effect on the growth and yield
parameters and pod yield of 1848kgha-1. Similarly
Balasubramanian (1997) reported that application of N, P
and K at 17, 34 and 54kgha-1 was sufficient for optimum
production of groundnut in red sandy loam soil.
Prabhakaran et al. (1998) also reported that application
of 100% recommended dose of fertilizer to supply
17:34:54 kgNPKha-1 with gypsum at 500 kgha-1 and
micronutrient mixture at 12.5kgha-1 enhanced the yield of
groundnut. Thorave and Dhonde (2007), reported that
application of 25:50:00 NPK kgha-1 gave the highest plant
height and total dry matter per plant at harvest and yield
attributes of summer groundnut. Shinde et al. (2000)
found that the application of 75% recommended dose of
fertilizer (100% RDF-25:50:00 kg NPK ha-1) resulted in
higher productivity of groundnut
Maharashtra. Fertilizer recommendations concerning the
seven major oilseed growing states are given in Table 1.
Significant increase in pod yield of groundnut was
observed at a fertilizer level of 30: 60:30 kg NPK ha-1 and
increase in yield was 30% higher than lower level of
fertilizer doses (Vinod kumar et al., 2000). Munda et al.
(2004) observed increased branches per plant (10.1) and
number of pods per plant (12.3) in groundnut as
compared to control (9.9 and 9.2) when 20:60:40 kg N,
P2O5, K2O ha-1 was applied. Subrahmaniyan et al. (2000)
observed linear response of confectionery groundnut
cultures viz., ICGV 86564 and B 95 to NPK fertilizers.
Increased dose of NPK fertilizers up to 150% of the RDF
(26:51:81kg NPK ha-1) recorded significantly higher plant
height, more number of matured pods per plant, higher
had higher growth
upto 100% of the
at Rahuri in
100 kernel weight, shelling percentage, sound matured
kernel percentage and pod yield of groundnut.
Application of 34:64:108 kg NPK ha-1 as three splits of N
and K at basal (50% N & K), flowering (25% N & K) and
peg formation stage (25% N & K) and 100% P as basal
were found to be the optimum dose for getting the
highest pod yield (Chitdeshwari et al., 2003).
Hameed Ansari et al. (1993) reported that increasing
fertilizer dose up to 50:75:30 kg NPK ha-1 increased seed
yield and oil content of groundnut and further increment
of fertilizer did not have economical effect on seed yield
and oil content. Mandal et al. (2002) reported that on an
average, groundnut required 160 to 180kg of N, 20-25kg
of P and 80 to 100kg of K to produce 2.0 to 2.5tha-1 of
Organic manure management in groundnut
Organic manures, valuable by-products of farming and
allied industries, contribute to plant growth through their
favourable effects on the physical, chemical and
biological properties of soil. Organic manures also have a
pronounced residual effect on the nutrient availability.
Many benefits attributed to organic manures have well
been documented (Stevenson, 1994). Nziguheba et al.,
(1998) also reported that addition of organic materials
causes mineralization of more recalcitrant fraction of P
through increased microbial activity and resultant
biochemical transformation. Christopher Lourduraj and
Rajagopal (1996) reported
15:42.5:67.5 kgNPKha-1 coupled with raw coir pith at
12.5tha-1 could be recommended to enhance groundnut
productivity. Application of P fertilizer in combination with
FYM was found effective in enhancing the effectiveness
of P fertilizers (Whalen and Chang, 2001).
Organic manure has a profound effect on improving soil
physical, chemical and biological properties and
enhancing productivity of field crops. In groundnut,
application of FYM at 10 to 15tha-1 increased the pod and
haulm yields and improved the yield parameters like
shelling percentage, 100 seed weight and sound mature
kernel compared to the recommended dose of fertilizers
(Subrahmaniyan et al., 2000). Increased pod yield due to
the application of pressmud either separately or in
combination with inorganic fertilizer was reported by
Sriramachandrasekaran (2001) and Manikandan (2003)
Farm yard manure management in groundnut
Application of farmyard manure (FYM) is common in
India but availability of FYM has been declining because
of increase in cropping intensity and area ,and other
competitive uses of cow dung. In central India,
mechanization has been increasing, number of farm
that application of
Veeramani et al. 240
Table 1. Fertilizer recommendations concerning the seven major oilseed growing states.
Recommended rates of NPK (kg/ha)
Source: Tandon, (1990).
animals is declining and area under cultivation is
increasing, therefore, only a small quantity of FYM per ha
is available. Furthermore, FYM contains only small
amounts of major nutrients and its cost of transportation
Farmyard manure not only supplied nutrients but also
improved soil conditions to produce higher yields. Jagdev
and Singh, (2000) have reported application FYM
increased the 10% shelling percentage, 100 kernel
weight 32%, numbers of pods and pod yield per plant in
groundnut crop. Dharma (1996) found that FYM might
have stimulated the activities of microorganisms that
make the plant nutrients readily available to the crops.
Balasubramanian and Palaniappan (1994) reported that
use of microbial inoculants in combination with FYM
favored groundnut production. Asmus (1993) reported
that application of FYM increased the nitrogen supply to
soil. Das et al. (1992) reported that application of FYM
and poultry manure to groundnut crop increase post
harvest soil organic C and available Ca contents. The
importance of organic to groundnut plants was
emphasized by Ahmed et al. (1997) who stated that the
highest dry matter accumulation, kernel yield and oil
content were achieved by fertilization with farmyard
manure. Ismail et al. (1998) reported significant increase
in organic C, available N and P content of the soil with
application of FYM possibly due to the increase in
decomposition product of organic matter.
FYM application had increased the dry matter
production, which might be due to increased release of
macro as well as micronutrients in better extraction by the
groundnut (Dosani et al., 1999). Application of FYM
increased the availability of potassium to crop, increasing
moisture content of soils and enhanced the availability of
potassium to plant. Addition of FYM might have restored
soil from potassium depletion, exhibit positive potassium
balance and maximum P fixation Akbari et al., (2002).
Beneficial effect of FYM
recommended dose of fertilizers may be due to the effect
of organic matter in improving physical, chemical and
in conjunction with
biological environment of soil conducive to better plant
growth (Deshmukh et al., 2005). Application of FYM at
21.9 tha-1 produced the highest DMP, pod yield and
haulm yield, and gave higher net return and BCR
(Chandrasekaran et al., 2007).
Poultry manure management in groundnut
In India, poultry arming is increasing. The poultry manure
is relatively a cheap source of both macronutrients (N, P,
K, Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, B) and can
increases oil carbon and N content, soil porosity and
enhances oil microbial activity. As poultry waste contains
a high concentration of nutrients, addition of small
quantity of it in an integrated nutrient management
system could meet the shortage of FYM to some extent.
This paper highlights the most productive cropping
system at different combinations of organics and
inorganics, and compares the relative ecacy of three
organic manures on productivity of three cropping
Poultry manure is relatively resistant to microbial
degradation. However, it is essential for establishing and
maintaining optimum soil physical condition and
important for plant growth (Rahman, 2004). Poultry
manure is excellent organic manure, as it contains high
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other essential
nutrients. In contrast to mineral fertilizer, it adds organic
matter to soil which improves soil structure, nutrient
retention, aeration, soil moisture holding capacity, and
water infiltration (Deksissa et al., 2008). Ammonium-N
(NH4-N) is a significant part of total N in poultry manure,
which additionally contains uric acid. Uric acid
metabolizes rapidly to NH4-N in most soils, and the net
result of the high NH4-N and uric acid contents in poultry
waste is that a large percentage of N can be converted to
nitrate-N (NO3-N) within a few weeks, (Sims and Wolf,
1994). Poultry manure improves the number of pods per
plant, pod yield and haulm yield in groundnut
241 Wudpecker J. Agric. Res.
(Subrahmaniyan et al., 1999).
Foliar spray of nutrients on groundnut
Foliar feeding is often the most effective and economical
way to correct plant nutrient deficiencies. During the last
decades, foliar feeding of nutrients has become an
established procedure in crop production to increase
yield and improve the quality of crop products (Roemheld
and El-Fouly, 1999). Foliar application of nutrients could
improve the nutrient utilization and lower environmental
pollution through reducing the amounts of fertilizers
added to soil (Abou-El-Nour 2002). Foliar feeding of a
nutrient might have actually promoted root absorption of
the same nutrient or other nutrients through improving
root growth and increasing nutrients uptake (El-Fouly and
Supply of N either from foliar sources or symbiotic fixation
resulted in greater nitrogen content in the leaf canopy
and thus increased biomass production and leaf area.
Besides, fermented sources of foliar application might
have contained microbial metabolites in appreciable
amount that would have helped in maintaining the
opening of stomata for longer period both in optimum and
adverse conditions during the crop growth which led to
increased leaf area index providing stronger source for
sink. Foliar application of nutrients normally reduces the
loss through absorption, leaching and other processes
associated with soil application and higher pod yield in
groundnut with foliar phosphorus application at flowering
stage was observed by Kene et al. (1991). The
experiments conducted at various research stations of
TNAU on the combined nutrient spray, revealed that the
groundnut yield was increased by 20% as compared to
control (CSM, 1990).
Subrahmaniyan et al. (2000) reported that the
application of combined
phosphate 2.5kg + ammonium sulphate 1.0kg + borax
0.5kg + NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) at 40 ppm) on 25th
and 35th day after sowing (DAS), followed by foliar spray
of NAA at 40 ppm alone on 45th and 55th DAS
significantly gave the highest values of growth and yield
attributes and pod yield of groundnut. Ali (2003) observed
that foliar spray of Zn (2%) improved the groundnut yield
attributes and yield as well as quality.
Natarajan (2002) opined increased yield of crop plants
with panchgavya application is due to enhancement in
the biological efficiency of crop plants. The presence of
beneficial bioactive compounds such as GA 3, IAA etc.,
in panchagavya and increased level of phosphorus and
potassium and other essential nutrients present in
composted pressmud might have contributed to
increased yield (Somasundaram, 2003). Galindo et al.,
(2007) reported that the use of fermented, liquid organic
fertilizers, effective microorganism (EM) and fermented
plant extracts (FPE) as foliar fertilizers have been
introduced to modern agriculture in recent years to
produce food with good quality and safety.
Role of foliar applied panchgavya in production of many
plantation crops had been well documented in India
(Selvaraj, 2003). Poorter and Nagel (2000) found that
increased allocation of food material to roots in turn
enhances the root volume and thereby weight of root
nodules concomitantly. Kumawat et al. (2009) reported
that application of panchgavya + neem leaf extract at
branching and flowering is advantageous in increasing
chlorophyll content, physiological growth, nutrient content
and uptake, dry matter accumulation, yield and yield
attributes and economics of groundnut.
Biofertilizer management in groundnut
Biofertilizers are the source of microbial inoculants, which
have brought hopes for
economically and environmentally.
developing countries like India, biofertilizers can solve
problems of high cost of fertilizers and thus can save the
economy of the country (Gupta et al., 2003). Due to
intensive farming india is known as a heavy consumer of
chemical fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers has
been doubled during the last two decades. Thus the
coincident application of organic manures and bio-
fertilizers is frequently recommended firstly for improving
biological, physical and chemical properties of soil and
secondary to get high and clean agricultural yield
products free from undesirable high doses of heavy
metals and other pollutants.
Biofertilisation, in contrast to the use of chemical
fertilisers, is receiving steadily increased attention and
recognition from scientists because the microbial
inoculants (including e.g. Rhizobium and mycorrhizal
fungal inoculants) introduced into soil or plant culture
enhance plant productivity directly or indirectly (Mahdi,
1992). The highest dry matter production in application of
both Rhizobium and phosphobacterium was due to the
fact that it produced maximum shoot length, higher
number of branches per plant and leaf area index (LAI)
(Chetti et al., 1995).
Groundnut is the major oilseeds crop accounting for 45%
of oilseeds area and 55% of oilseeds production of the
country. As such this crop has to play a major role in
bridging the vegetable oil gap in the country. But the
current average yield level is very low as compared to
what is being obtained in most of the groundnut growing
other countries. In India, the reasons for low peanut yield
are the use of low yield potential varieties, poor soil
fertility and nutrient management. Peanut perform better
in terms of yield and quality when good cultivar sown
under optimum nutrient management coupled with
organic nutrient management.
Groundnut being a leguminous crop, it is capable of
fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Applications of fertilizer
including gypsum in adequate quantities become more
essential for obtaining higher yields. Adoption of an
improved variety alone can increase the yield by about
20%. Hence a proper understanding of management
practices viz., season, suitable varieties; optimum plant
density, optimum nutrient management with organic
nutrient management are necessary to enhance the
productivity of groundnut which in turn helps our country
to avoid shortage of edible oils and large scale imports at
the expense of huge foreign exchange.
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