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Organic manure management on groundnut; A review

Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research 08/2012; 1(1):238-243.
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    ABSTRACT: Field trials were carried out between 2002 and 2005 to investigate the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic dairy farming system with arable land and grassland on nutrient cycling, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop yields within a cropping system comprising a whole crop rotation. Five treatments were carried out: (i) solid farmyard manure, (ii) undigested liquid slurry, (iii) digested liquid slurry, (iv) digestion of liquid slurry and field residues such as crop residues and cover crops, and (v) similar to iv, but with additional N inputs at the equivalent of 40kgNha−1 farmland through digestion of purchased substrates. The term “manure” is used in the present study to mean all kind of aboveground organic residues left on the field (“immobile manures”, such as crop residues and green manures incorporated directly into the soil) or added as stable wastes or effluents of biogas digestion (“mobile manures”). The total aboveground biomass growth and the overall aboveground N uptake of non-legume maincrops were higher in the liquid slurry manure treatment than in the solid farmyard manure system (+5% and +9%, respectively). The digestion of the liquid slurry increased N uptake and crop yields only after soil incorporation of the slurry shortly after field spreading. The additional collection and digestion of field residues such as cover crops and crop residues, combined with a reallocation of the effluents, strongly increased the amounts of “mobile” manure, allowing a more focussed allocation of the available N. This led to an increase in the aboveground N uptake (+12%) and biomass yield (+4%) of the five non-legume crops, due to a better adapted allocation of nutrients in space and time. Results obtained with spring wheat showed that removal of cover crops in autumn, and their digestion, combined with subsequent use as manure in spring resulted in a better synchronisation of the crop N demand and the soil N availability, in comparison with a strategy where the biomass was left on the field as green (immobile) manure. The inclusion of external substrates led to a further increase of 8% in N uptake, but not to a significant increase in aboveground dry matter yields.
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, manure has been recognized as an excellent soil amendment that can improve soil quality and provide nutrients for crop production. In areas of high animal density, however, the potential for water pollution resulting from improper storage or disposal of manure may be significant. The objective of this study was to determine the P balance of cultivated soils under barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production that have received long-term annual manure amendments. Nonirrigated soils at the study site in Lethbridge, AB, Canada, have received 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg manure ha(-1) (wet wt. basis) while irrigated plots received 0, 60, 120, and 180 Mg ha(-1) annually for 16 yr. The amount of P removed in barley grain and straw during the 16-yr period was between 5 and 18% of the cumulative manure P applied. There was a balance between P applied in manure and P recovered in crops and soils (to the 150-cm depth) of nonirrigated plots during the 16-yr study. In irrigated plots, as much as 1.4 Mg P ha(-1) added (180 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) treatment) was not recovered over 16 yr, and was probably lost through leaching. The risk of ground water contamination with P from manure was greater in irrigated than nonirrigated plots that have received long-term annual manure amendments. Manure application rates should be reduced in nonirrigated and irrigated plots to more closely match manure P inputs to crop P requirements.
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