Liver damage during organ donor procurement in donation after circulatory death compared with donation after brain death

Hepatopancreatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, Institute of Transplantation, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. .
British Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.54). 02/2013; 100(3). DOI: 10.1002/bjs.9009
Source: PubMed


During the past decade the number of livers recovered and transplanted from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors has increased significantly. As reported previously, injuries are more frequent during kidney procurement from DCD than from donation after brain death (DBD) donors. This aim of this study was to compare outcomes between DCD and DBD with respect to liver injuries.

Data on liver injuries in organs procured between 2000 and 2010 were obtained from the UK Transplant Registry.

A total of 7146 livers were recovered from deceased donors during the study, 628 (8·8 per cent) from DCD donors. Injuries occurred in 1001 procedures (14·0 per cent). There were more arterial (1·6 versus 1·0 per cent), portal (0·5 versus 0·3 per cent) and caval (0·3 versus 0·2 per cent) injuries in the DBD group than in the DCD group, although none of these findings was statistically significant. Capsular injuries occurred more frequently in DCD than DBD (15·6 versus 11·4 per cent; P = 0·002). There was no significant difference between DCD and DBD groups in liver discard rates related to damage.

There were no differences in terms of vascular injuries between DCD and DBD livers, although capsular injuries occurred more frequently in DCD organs. Continuing the trend for increased frequency of DCD liver recovery, and ensuring that there is an adequately skilled surgical team available for procurement, is vital to improving the utilization of DCD livers.

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    • "The increasing demand for transplantation has created a need for additional organ sources, and acceptance criteria have been widened, not only for kidney retrieval but increasingly for other organs with a lower tolerance of warm ischemia, such as the liver, pancreas, and lungs [18,19]. This expansion of donor criteria to include the use of grafts from elderly donors, DCD, or organs from donors with other medical conditions has underlined the need for a technique that prevents any further damage during the preservation period. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation is proposed for abdominal organ procurement from donation after circulatory determination of death (DCD). In France, the national Agency of Biomedicine supervises the procurement of kidneys from DCD, specifying the durations of tolerated warm and cold ischemia. However, no study has determined the optimal conditions of this technique. The aim of this work was to develop a preclinical model of DCD using abdominal normothermic oxygenated recirculation (ANOR). In short, our objectives are to characterize the mechanisms involved during ANOR and its impact on abdominal organs. Methods We used Large White pigs weighing between 45 and 55 kg. After 30 minutes of potassium-induced cardiac arrest, the descending thoracic aorta was clamped and ANOR set up between the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta for 4 hours. Hemodynamic, respiratory and biochemical parameters were collected. Blood gasometry and biochemistry analysis were performed during the ANOR procedure. Results Six ANOR procedures were performed. The surgical procedure is described and intraoperative parameters and biological data are presented. Pump flow rates were between 2.5 and 3 l/min. Hemodynamic, respiratory, and biochemical objectives were achieved under reproducible conditions. Interestingly, animals remained hemodynamically stable following the targeted protocol. Arterial pH was controlled, and natremia and renal function remained stable 4 hours after the procedure was started. Decreased hemoglobin and serum proteins levels, concomitant with increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, were observed as a consequence of the surgery. The serum potassium level was increased, owing to the extracorporeal circulation circuit. Conclusions Our ANOR model is the closest to clinical conditions reported in the literature and will allow the study of the systemic and abdominal organ impact of this technique. The translational relevance of the pig will permit the determination of new biomarkers and protocols to improve DCD donor management.
    06/2014; 3(1):13. DOI:10.1186/2047-1440-3-13
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial injuries in graft organs may be recognized during procurement and may contribute to organ waste. These injuries may be more likely in the presence of abnormal anatomy. We observed 2 liver grafts that had hepatic artery thrombosis in the donor vessels. The graft from a 64-year-old woman who had circulatory death was discarded because of potential decreased perfusion of the lobe and risk of thrombosis extending to the main hepatic artery after transplant. The graft from a 68-year-old woman donor who had brain death was used successfully as a reduced-size liver graft that included the caudate lobe. In summary, donor grafts that have hepatic artery thrombosis may or may not be used in transplant, depending on the cause of donor death, graft quality, and anatomic location of donor hepatic artery thrombosis.
    Experimental and clinical transplantation: official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation 09/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.6002/ect.2013.0287 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For deceased-donor liver graft retrieval, the warm dissection technique of hilar dissection before perfusion had been the standard procedure in the early period of liver transplantation. Thereafter, the cold dissection technique of in situ flushing and hilar dissection after perfusion has been preferred in many transplantation centers for rapid procurement of multiple organs. This study intended to assess the safety and usefulness of the warm dissection technique used in deceased-donor liver transplantation. This study analyzed a single surgeon's experience of the warm dissection technique for 165 cases of liver graft retrieval, regarding the prolongation of retrieval operation time, retrieval-associated graft injury, and recipient outcomes. An additional 20 to 40 minutes was required for warm dissection. The incidence of retrieval-associated graft injury was 13 (7.9%), in which hepatic parenchymal injury was detected in 7 (capsular tear in 6 and subcapsular hematoma in 1) and vascular injury in 6 (celiac axis injury in 5 and common hepatic artery injury in 1). There was no other episode of injury at the branch artery, vena cava, portal vein, and bile duct. There was no significant difference of 1-year graft survival rates between liver grafts with and without graft injury (83% vs 83.3%, P = .73). When the vital signs of deceased donor are stable, the warm dissection technique may be helpful to decrease the cold ischemic preservation time because the risk of graft injury is acceptably low and it provides more time for recipient preparation, thus giving potential advantages for marginal liver grafts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Transplantation Proceedings 04/2015; 47(3):576-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.12.043 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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