Effect of rapid fluid resuscitation using crystalloids or colloids on hemostasis in piglets

Department of Anaesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Pediatric Anesthesia (Impact Factor: 1.85). 12/2012; 23(3). DOI: 10.1111/pan.12106
Source: PubMed


Background and objectives:
Impairment of blood coagulation is one of the main side effects of volume replacement, particularly if artificial colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and gelatine preparations are used. This animal study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single fast intravenous crystalloid or colloid fluid bolus on blood coagulation as measured by rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM).

Thirty-two anesthetized piglets were infused with a rapid 20 ml·kg(-1) fluid bolus of either normal saline (NS), 4% gelatine, 5% albumin or 6% HES 130/0.4 (n = 8 per group) over a period of 2 min. Hemostasis was assessed by ROTEM before and 1 min after fluid administration. Within-group differences were analyzed by Wilcoxon test, and additionally overall Kruskal-Wallis test followed by posthoc Mann-Whitney U-test were applied to detect differences between groups.

All fluids caused a significant weakening of clot strength within groups. HES and gelatine showed a significantly stronger impairment of clot growth and maximum clot firmness as compared with albumin and normal saline. Impairment of fibrin polymerization was more pronounced following HES as compared with all other fluids.

After moderate but very fast volume loading, HES and gelatine impair blood coagulation to a larger extent as compared with albumin or normal saline, while no significant differences were observed between both artificial colloids.

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    ABSTRACT: The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various supportive therapeutic strategies in the pre-hospital and pre-operative stages is essential for optimal care. The immediate rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure is now the standard treatment of patients with combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The fluid in patients with brain trauma and especially in patients with brain injur y is a critical issue. In this context we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regarding the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy.