To evaluate the impact of adjuvant hormonal therapy after radical prostatectomy on overall survival in high-risk prostate cancer patients, stratified by comorbidity status.
We identified 1247 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 1988 to 2004 for high-risk prostate cancer, as defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification. Comorbidity status was stratified by Charlson Comorbidity Index as 0, 1 or >2, as well as by the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared within each comorbidity category/adjuvant hormonal therapy strata with the log-rank test.
Median patient age was 65 years, and the median postoperative follow up was 11.2 years. In total, 419 patients (34%) received adjuvant hormonal therapy. The distribution of Charlson Comorbidity Index was 0, 1 and ≥ 2 in 861 (69%), 244 (20%) and 142 (11%) patients, respectively. The 10-year overall survival for patients who received adjuvant hormonal therapy versus those who did not was 75% versus 82% (P=0.54) for patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index=0, 72% versus 76% (P=0.83) with Charlson Comorbidity Index=1, and 70% versus 68% (P=0.33) with Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥ 2. Meanwhile, 155 (12%) patients had cardiovascular disease, and the 10-year overall survival for patients with cardiovascular disease who received adjuvant hormonal therapy was 72%, compared with 76% without adjuvant hormonal therapy (P=0.97). On multivariate analysis, receipt of adjuvant hormonal therapy was not associated with non-prostate cancer mortality (P=0.24).
Adjuvant hormonal therapy after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer does not increase non-prostate cancer mortality, even among patients with multiple comorbidities. Additional studies are warranted to determine optimal multimodal treatment approach for high-risk patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer treatment should depend on the characteristics of a patient's prostate cancer as well as overall health status. A possible adverse consequence of poor patient selection is a lack of benefit because of premature death from another cause. We evaluated the association between perioperative comorbidity and risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 14,052 men who underwent RP from 1983 to 2006. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score was calculated using the discharge records for the prostatectomy hospitalization. Mortality status and cause of death were obtained via chart review and searches of national databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death from causes other than prostate cancer after RP by CCI score (0, 1, 2+).
The median age at RP was 58.1 years. The median follow-up was 7.6 years (interquartile range 4.3-11.5). Of 849 deaths, 599 (70.6%) resulted from causes other than prostate cancer. On multivariable analysis, men with a CCI ≥2 had a statistically significantly higher risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer compared with those with lower CCI scores (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.30-3.64, P = .0003).
Greater perioperative comorbidity was associated with a higher risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer in men who underwent RP. Physicians should consider using a standardized tool to assess perioperative comorbidities to enhance appropriate recommendation for surgical treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrate that androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and orchiectomy for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have examined its effect on the peripheral vascular system.
To study the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and venous thromboembolism associated with ADT for PCa.
This was a population-based observational study of 182 757 US men ≥ 66 yr of age who were diagnosed with nonmetastatic PCa from 1992 to 2007, with a median follow-up of 5.1 yr, of whom 47.8% received GnRH agonists and 2.2% orchiectomy.
We used Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying treatment variables to adjust for demographic and tumor characteristics in assessing whether treatment with GnRH agonists or orchiectomy were associated with PAD and/or venous thromboembolism.
GnRH agonist use was associated with an increased risk of incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.21) and incident venous thromboembolism (adjusted HR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15). In addition, orchiectomy was associated with an increased risk of peripheral arterial disease (adjusted HR: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) and venous thromboembolism (adjusted HR: 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11-1.45). Limitations include the observational study design and the inability to assess the use of oral antiandrogens.
ADT for nonmetastatic PCa is associated with an increased risk of PAD and venous thromboembolism. Additional research is needed to better understand the potential risks and benefits of ADT, so that this treatment can be targeted to patients for whom the benefits are clearest.
European Urology 02/2012; 61(6):1119-28. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.01.045 · 13.94 Impact Factor
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