"OCD often begins during childhood, with a mean age at onset of $20 years (Narayanaswamy et al., 2012), though a median onset age at onset of 10 has been reported (Sarvet, 2013). OCD is believed to affect 1–3% of the population, both in children and adults (Sarvet, 2013). Like TS, OCD has a strong genetic component, though specific genes have yet to be identified (Pauls, 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter focuses on neurodevelopmental diseases that are tightly linked to abnormal function of the striatum and connected structures. We begin with an overview of three representative diseases in which striatal dysfunction plays a key role-Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Rett's syndrome, and primary dystonia. These diseases highlight distinct etiologies that disrupt striatal integrity and function during development, and showcase the varied clinical manifestations of striatal dysfunction. We then review striatal organization and function, including evidence for striatal roles in online motor control/action selection, reinforcement learning, habit formation, and action sequencing. A key barrier to progress has been the relative lack of animal models of these diseases, though recently there has been considerable progress. We review these efforts, including their relative merits providing insight into disease pathogenesis, disease symptomatology, and basal ganglia function.
Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2014; 109:97-169. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-397920-9.00001-9 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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