The biological effect of dentin noncollagenous proteins (DNCPs) on the human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT It was recognized that periodontal progenitor cells penetrate disintegrated Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, and contact with root dentin give rise to periodontium formation. Clinically, direct contact of the conditioned or denuded root surfaces with periodontal cells seems to be a prerequisite for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of dentin noncollagenous proteins (DNCPs) on the human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Chemical-conditioned root dentin (CCRD) was prepared by process of partly demineralization and deproteinization. Treated HPDLSCs with DNCPs showed increased proliferation and adhesion ability. Induced HPDLSCs presented several features of cementoblast differentiation, as indicated by morphologic changes, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, increased matrix mineralization, and upregulated expression of mineralization-associated genes. Incubation of treated HPDLSC aggregate in vivo revealed that cementum-like tissues formed along the CCRD surface with fibrous tissue adjacent to or inserted into it, but untreated HPDLSCs cannot form similar structure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply active proteins derived from dentin with periodontal stem cells to construct periodontal structure, which may shed light on human periodontal tissue regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: There are five types of post-natal human dental stem cells that have been identified, isolated and characterized: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, dental follicle precursor cells, and stem cells from apical papilla. These populations present properties similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells, such as the ability to self-renew and the potential for multilineage differentiation. While the dental stem cells have greater capacity to give rise to odontogenic cells and regenerate dental pulp and periodontal tissue, they also have the capacity to differentiate into chondrogenic, osteogenic, neurogenic, myogenic, hepatogenic, adipogenic, and insulin-producing cells. In this way they have been differentiated into all three germ line cells, proving that a population of pluripotent stem cells exists in the dental tissues. Thus, dental stem cells have the potential to develop solutions to different clinical problems such as dental implants, bone repair, neurodegenerative diseases, heart failure and diabetes. Here, we review the information available on dental stem cells as well as their potential application in dentistry, regenerative medicine and the development of other therapeutic approaches.Journal of dentistry 04/2014; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complex microenvironment of the periodontal wound creates many challenges associated with multitissue regeneration of periodontal lesions. Recent characterization of mesenchymal stem cell-like populations residing in periodontal ligament tissues has shown that these cells exhibit features of postnatal stem cells. Despite these advances, a lack of consistency in design of preclinical studies and a limited study of allogeneic transplantation applications has restricted our understanding of their clinical utility in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in a rat periodontal fenestration defect mode and to identify an optimal end time-point suitable for quantitative assessment of tissue regeneration. Periodontal fenestration defects, created in Sprague Dawley rats, were treated with allogeneic PDLSCs seeded onto Gelfoam(®) (Absorbable gelatin sponge; Pharmacia Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) or with Gelfoam(®) alone, or remained untreated. Experimental rats were killed at 7, 14, 21 or 28 d after surgery and the tissues were processed for immunohistochemical and histomorphometric examination. Defects treated with PDLSCs showed significantly greater percentage bone fill and length of new bone bridge compared with the untreated group or the group treated withGelfoam(®) alone on days 14 and 21. Similarly, a statistically significant difference was achieved within specimens retrieved on day 21 for analysis of regeneration of cementum/periodontal ligament (PDL)-like structures. The present investigation shows that allogeneic PDLSCs have a marked ability to repair periodontal defects by forming bone, PDL and cementum-like tissue in vivo. The results suggest that treatment periods of 14 and 21 d are optimal end time-points for quantitative assessment of periodontal regeneration within the rodent fenestration-defect model utilized in the present study.Journal of Periodontal Research 07/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic periodontitis is a serious infectious and inflammatory oral disease of humans worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities are effective for controlling periodontal disease. However, the regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues remains a major challenge in clinical practice due to the complex structure of the periodontium. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches combined with the usage of emerging biomaterials are entering a new era in periodontal regeneration. The present review updates the current knowledge of periodontal ligament stem cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration, and elaborates on the potentials for clinical application.Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry. 03/2014;