It was recognized that periodontal progenitor cells penetrate disintegrated Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, and contact with root dentin give rise to periodontium formation. Clinically, direct contact of the conditioned or denuded root surfaces with periodontal cells seems to be a prerequisite for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we investigated the biological effect of dentin noncollagenous proteins (DNCPs) on the human periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Chemical-conditioned root dentin (CCRD) was prepared by process of partly demineralization and deproteinization. Treated HPDLSCs with DNCPs showed increased proliferation and adhesion ability. Induced HPDLSCs presented several features of cementoblast differentiation, as indicated by morphologic changes, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, increased matrix mineralization, and upregulated expression of mineralization-associated genes. Incubation of treated HPDLSC aggregate in vivo revealed that cementum-like tissues formed along the CCRD surface with fibrous tissue adjacent to or inserted into it, but untreated HPDLSCs cannot form similar structure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply active proteins derived from dentin with periodontal stem cells to construct periodontal structure, which may shed light on human periodontal tissue regeneration.
"PDLSCs are promising stem cells for periodontal regeneration, as they have been shown to form PDL/cementum and bone-like tissues in vivo –. However, the extracellular microenvironment has a direct effect on PDLSC function , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are one of the best candidates for periodontal regeneration. Their function could be impaired in periodontitis microenvironment. Dental follicle cells (DFCs), serving as precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, have intimate connection with PDLSCs. However, it is still unknown whether DFCs could provide a favorable microenvironment to improve the proliferation and differentiation capacity of PDLSCs from healthy subjects (HPDLSCs) and patients diagnosed with periodontitis (PPDLSCs).
HPDLSCs, PPDLSCs and DFCs were harvested and identified using microscopic and flow cytometric analysis. Then, the coculture systems of DFCs/HPDLSCs and DFCs/PPDLSCs were established with 0.4 µm transwell, in which all the detection indexs were obtained from HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. The expression of stemness-associated genes was detected by real-time PCR, and the proliferation ability was assessed using colony formation and cell cycle assays. The osteogenic differentiation capacity was evaluated by real-time PCR, western blot, ALP activity, Alizarin Red S staining and calcium level analysis, while the adipogenic differentiation capacity was determined by real-time PCR and Oil Red O staining. The cell sheet formation in vitro was observed by HE staining and SEM, and the implantation effect in vivo was evaluated using HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining.
PPDLSCs had a greater proliferation capability but lower osteogenic and adipogenic potential than HPDLSCs. DFCs enhanced the proliferation and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs to different degrees. Moreover, coculture with DFCs increased cell layers and extracellular matrix of HPDLSCs/PPDLSCs cell sheets in vitro and improved periodontal regeneration by HPDLSCs/PPDLSCs in vivo.
Our data suggest that the function of PPDLSCs could be damaged in the periodontitis microenvironment. DFCs appear to enhance the self-renewal and multi-differentiation capacity of both HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs, which indicates that DFCs could provide a beneficial microenvironment for periodontal regeneration using PDLSCs.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108752. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108752 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Besides the periodontal tissue regenerative potential for PDLSCs, they could also be used in the field of tooth regeneration by co-culturing with some other stem cells and precursor cells coated outside scaffold materials . Results of Ma et al  revealed that PDLSCs co-cultured with cementoblast could accelerate their differentiation procedure in the environment of dentin non-collagenous protein induction, indicating the significant potential of PDLSCs in the field of tooth root regeneration. Taking these backgrounds into consideration, results of our study explained why smokers had an unsatisfactory periodontal regeneration and provided target for clinical treatment in the near future. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is one of the high risk factors of adult chronic periodontitis and nicotine is the well established toxic substance in cigarette. However, the mechanism of nicotine induced periodontitis is still unknown. Here we studied whether nicotine impaired the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) through activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR).
hPDLSCs with multi differentiation potential and surface makers for mesenchymal stem cells were harvested by limiting dilution technique. The level of mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of ostegenic related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of α7 nAChR and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of the receptor and related signaling pathway in nicotine impairing the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs were also studied in different levels.
Nicotine deteriorated the ostegenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner. Activation of α7 nAChR by nicotine treatment activated wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, leading to osteogenic deficiency of hPDLSCs. Blockage of α7 nAChR and wnt pathway inhibitor treatment rescued nicotine induced osteogenic differentiation deficiency.
These data suggested that nicotine activated α7 nAChR expressed on PDLSCs and further activated wnt signaling downstream, thus deteriorating the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by nicotine might lead to cigarette smoking related periodontitis.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83102. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083102 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"A previous study reported that during the periodontal wound healing process, these cells migrated from the residual PDL to regenerate alveolar bone tissue.4 Recently, several studies reported the pluripotency of periodontal ligament cells.4,5,6,7,8 It was found that cells in the periodontal ligament express markers of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which suggests that stem cells are present in the periodontal ligament.5,6 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 µg⋅L(-1) TGF-β3 or 100 µg⋅L(-1) BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.International Journal of Oral Science (2013) 5, doi:10.1038/ijos.2013.19; published online 12 April 2013.
International Journal of Oral Science 04/2013; 5(1). DOI:10.1038/ijos.2013.19 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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