Article

Binding of Flavor Compounds and Whey Protein Isolate as Affected by Heat and High Pressure Treatments

Riddet Centre, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.11). 10/2008; 56(21):10218-24. DOI: 10.1021/jf801810b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The interactions of whey protein isolate (WPI) and flavor compounds (2-nonanone, 1-nonanal, and trans-2-nonenal) were investigated, and the influence of flavor compound structure and heat and high pressure denaturation on the interactions were determined by using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC). The binding of WPI and the flavor compounds decreased in the order trans-2-nonenal > 1-nonanal > 2-nonanone. The differences in binding can be explained with hydrophobic interactions only in the case of 2-nonanone, whereas the aldehydes, in particular trans-2-nonenal, can also react covalently. Heat and high pressure treatment affected protein-flavor interactions depending on the structure of the flavor compound. Upon both heat and high pressure denaturation, the binding of 2-nonanone to WPI decreased, while the binding of 1-nonanal remained unchanged, and the affinity for trans-2-nonenal increased rapidly. The results suggest that hydrophobic interactions are weakened upon heat or high pressure denaturation, whereas covalent interactions are enhanced.

1 Follower
 · 
80 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Food protein functionality has classically been viewed from the perspective of how single molecules or protein ingredients function in solutions and form simple colloidal structures. Based on this approach, tests on protein solutions are used to produce values for solubility, thermal stability, gelation, emulsifying, foaming, fat binding and water binding to name a few. While this approach is beneficial in understanding the properties of specific proteins and ingredients, it is somewhat restricted in predicting performance in real foods where the complexities of ingredients and processing operations have a significant affect on the colloidal structures and therefore overall properties of the final food product. In addition, focusing on proteins as just biopolymers used to create food structures ignores the biological functions of proteins in the diet. These can be beneficial, as in providing amino acids for protein synthesis or bioactive peptides, or these can be detrimental, as in causing a food allergic response. This review will focus on integrating the colloidal/polymer and biological aspects of protein functionality. This will be done using foams and gels to illustrate colloidal/polymer aspects and bioactive peptides and allergenicity to demonstrate biological function.
    Food Hydrocolloids 12/2011; 25(8):1853-1864. DOI:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2011.05.008 · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interactions of homologous aldehydes (hexanal, heptanal, and octanal) and ketones (2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, and 2-octanone) to salt and alkaline-extracted canola and pea proteins and commercial wheat gluten were studied using GC/MS. Long-chain aldehyde flavours exhibited higher binding affinity, regardless of protein type and isolation method. Salt-extracted canola protein isolates (CPIs) revealed the highest binding capacity to all aldehydes followed by wheat gluten and salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs), while binding of ketone flavours decreased in the order: PPIs > wheat gluten > CPIs. Two aldolisation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal and 2-pentyl-2-nonenal, were detected from the interactions between CPIs with hexanal and heptanal, respectively. Protein thermal behaviour in the presence of these compounds was analysed by differential scanning calorimeter, where decreased ΔH inferred potential conformational changes due to partial denaturation of PPIs. Compared to ketones, aldehyde flavours possessed much higher “unfolding capacity” (lower ΔH), which accounted for their higher binding affinities.
    Food Chemistry 08/2014; 157:364–372. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.042 · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of the enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase (PG) on flavor-binding properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) under aqueous conditions was evaluated by a modified equilibrium dialysis (ultrafiltration) technique. Binding parameters, such as number of binding sites (n) and binding constants (K), were derived from Klotz plots. The partial deamidation of SPI by PG (43.7% degree of deamidation) decreased overall flavor-binding affinity (nK) at 25 °C for both vanillin and maltol by approximately 9- and 4-fold, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of binding indicated that the flavor-protein interactions were spontaneous (negative ΔG°) and that the driving force of the interactions shifted from entropy to enthalpy driven as a result of deamidation. Deamidation of soy protein caused a change in the mechanism of binding from hydrophobic interactions or covalent bonding (Schiff base formation) to weaker van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2012; 60(32):7817-23. DOI:10.1021/jf301719k · 3.11 Impact Factor