Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother-infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother-infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother-infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants' behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother-infant interactions.
"Because of different parenting values, one would expect more parent gender differences in the inter-married couples compared to the Finnish couples. On the other hand, studies on immigrant mother–infant interaction have revealed an acculturation process towards the parenting values of the dominant culture (Cote et al., 2008; Gratier, 2003; Ispa et al., 2004; Vigil, 2002). In the case of optimal resolution, the spouses from two different cultures might share bicultural values and strive for socializing their infant into a new family culture. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this longitudinal study on Finnish and Finnish-Russian families, infants’ play interaction at 7 months with each parent was observed during 5-minute play sessions (N = 96) and predictive relations between co-regulated communication in mid-infancy and language development at 14 months were examined. Parental differences in communication were greater within the culturally diverse Finnish-Russian families than within the culturally less diverse Finnish families. Four family-level communication profiles were identified that differed with respect to how balanced, or similar, infants’ co-regulation with each parent appeared. Three of the profiles were equally distributed across the families, whereas one of the unbalanced profiles was typical for the culturally diverse families. Language exposure and balance of the family-level communication profiles in mid-infancy predicted differences in children’s expressive and productive vocabulary size beyond infancy.
International Journal of Bilingualism 02/2011; 15(4):535-559. DOI:10.1177/1367006911425816 · 0.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE.: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between U.S. mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN.: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 139 European American, Latin American, and African American families. RESULTS.: Interactions between parent gender and ethnicity emerged for adult-controlled failure and perceived control over failure. Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers, whereas mothers reported attitudes that were more progressive and modern than did fathers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Ethnic differences emerged for five of the seven attributions and attitudes examined; four remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Medium effect sizes were found for concordance between parents in the same family for attributions regarding uncontrollable success, child-controlled failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS.: This work elucidates ways that parent gender and ethnicity relate to attributions regarding U.S. parents' successes and failures in caregiving situations and to their progressive versus authoritarian parenting attitudes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contingencies of three maternal and two infant socioemotional behaviors that are universal components of mother-infant interaction were investigated at 5 months in 62 mothers (31 who had adopted domestically and 31 who had given birth) and their first children (16 males in each group). Patterns of contingent responding were largely comparable in dyads by adoption and birth, although the two groups of mothers responded differentially to the two types of infant signals. Mothers in both groups were more responsive than infants in social and vocal interactions, but infants were more responsive in maternal speech-infant attention interactions. Family type × gender statistical interactions suggested a possible differential role of infant gender in establishing mother-infant contingencies in families by adoption and birth.
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