An active-learning laboratory on immunizations

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy, Richmond, VA.
American journal of pharmaceutical education (Impact Factor: 1.08). 12/2012; 76(10):198. DOI: 10.5688/ajpe7610198
Source: PubMed


To implement and evaluate an active-learning laboratory activity to teach pharmacy students about influenza, pneumococcal, and shingles vaccines.

The laboratory session was divided into 6 immunization stations: 3 stations on influenza including a pediatrics station, and 1 station each for pneumococcal, shingles, and anaphylaxis.

Although 118 of 123 (95.9%) students had completed an immunization training certificate prior to attending the laboratory, the average score on a pre-assessment to measure immunization knowledge and confidence was 56%. The post-assessment score was 87.4%. Students' confidence improved by 18.7% to 51.2% in each of the 5 areas assessed. Most respondents rated the activity overall as good or excellent on a post-activity evaluation.

An active-learning approach to teaching immunizations allowed students to gain knowledge in simulated real-world experiences and reinforced key concepts on influenza, pneumococcal, and shingles vaccines.

1 Follower
7 Reads

  • Australian Journal of Pharmacy 06/2014; 95(1130):60-63.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To measure changes in students' knowledge and confidence scores after completing an elective clinical toxicology course in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Design: Various active-learning techniques were used to create a learner-centered environment. Approximately two-thirds of the course used student-led presentations. Some of those not presenting were assigned to be evaluators, responsible for asking the presenter a question or writing quiz questions based on the presented material. Other learner-centered activities included weekly quizzes and discussions at the conclusion of each presented topic. Assessment: A test instrument designed to measure students' knowledge and associated level of confidence on each item was administered at the beginning and end of the course. Students' knowledge and confidence scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. Conclusions: Students' increased confidence and knowledge scores were well correlated after course completion, indicating students were better able to self-assess these areas. These findings suggest that confidence could be an additional measure of students' metacognitive skill development.
    American journal of pharmaceutical education 06/2014; 78(5):95. DOI:10.5688/ajpe78595 · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate changes in student confidence resulting from completion of the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) certification course, an immunization-based simulation, and practical experience in influenza immunization clinics during an Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE). Secondary objectives included evaluation of influences on student confidence such as campus location, prior APhA certification, and prior experience in preparing injectable medications. Methods An eight-question survey was administered to third-year pharmacy students in Fall 2011 to measure confidence in immunization skills and knowledge at four time points; before APhA certification, after APhA certification, after participation in the simulation, and after 12 hours of practical experience in influenza-based immunization clinics. The simulation consisted of case-based scenarios and a skill assessment. Results Upon IPPE completion, at least 86.6% of students reported either confidence or extreme confidence for all survey items. Student confidence increased significantly between time points and from baseline to IPPE completion. Students certified prior to Fall 2011 were significantly less confident at baseline in some of the legal issues and response to anaphylactic reactions; however, this difference became non-significant after completion of the simulation. Conclusions All three training modules are important in preparing students for immunization delivery in their future practice. Schools of pharmacy should consider increasing opportunities for development of student confidence in this area. The lack of initial confidence regarding legal requirements in students certified prior to Fall 2011 may indicate the need for recertification or mandatory immunization-based continuing professional development for immunizing pharmacists.
    Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 11/2014; 6(6). DOI:10.1016/j.cptl.2014.07.011
Show more