Patterns of Insulin Concentration During the OGTT Predict the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Americans

Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 12/2012; 36(5). DOI: 10.2337/dc12-0246
Source: PubMed


To examine whether the patterns of insulin concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predict type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We followed 400 nondiabetic Japanese Americans for 10-11 years. Insulin concentrations at 30, 60, and 120 min during a 2-h 75-g OGTT at baseline were used to derive the following possible patterns of insulin: pattern 1 (30-min peak, higher insulin level at 60 than at 120 min), pattern 2 (30-min peak, lower or equal level at 60 vs. 120 min), pattern 3 (60-min peak); pattern 4 (120-min peak, lower level at 30 than at 60 min), and pattern 5 (120-min peak, equal or higher level at 30 vs. 60 min). Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index. Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) [Δinsulin/Δglucose (30-0 min)] and disposition index (IGI/HOMA-IR).RESULTSThere were 86 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. The cumulative incidence was 3.2, 9.8, 15.4, 47.8, and 37.5% for patterns 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Compared with pattern 1, patterns 4 and 5, characterized by a lasting late insulin response, were associated with significantly less insulin sensitivity as measured by the Matsuda index and lower early insulin response by the disposition index. The multiple-adjusted odds ratios of type 2 diabetes were 12.55 (95% CI 4.79-32.89) for pattern 4 and 8.34 (2.38-29.27) for pattern 5 compared with patterns 1 and 2. This association was independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity.CONCLUSION
The patterns of insulin concentration during an OGTT strongly predict the development of type 2 diabetes.

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Available from: Tomoshige Hayashi, Oct 20, 2014
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    • "A recent study has shown that the patterns of insulin concentration during an OGTT strongly predict the development of diabetes [16]. Thus, the OGTT could provide more accurate information about the risk of diabetes, especially in people with prediabetes who have impaired glucose metabolism [16] [17]. More specifically , plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations after glucose loading are more likely to reflect b-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance than are fasting samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims The clinical implications of prediabetes for development of type 2 diabetes may differ for Asian ethnicity. We investigated various indices derived from a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with prediabetes to predict their future risk of diabetes. Methods We recruited 406 consecutive subjects with prediabetes from 2005 to 2006 and followed them up every 3–6 months for up to 9 years. Prediabetes was defined as isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), combined glucose intolerance (CGI) or isolated elevated HbA1c (5.7–6.4%, 39–46 mmol/mol) without IFG or IGT. The rate of diabetes conversion was compared between prediabetes categories. The association of glycemic indices with development of diabetes was also investigated. Results Eighty-one patients were diagnosed with diabetes during the 9-year follow-up (median 46.0 months). The rate of diabetes conversion was higher in subjects with CGI (31.9%), or isolated IGT (18.5%) than in those with isolated IFG (15.2%) or isolated elevated HbA1c (10.9%). Surrogate markers reflecting β-cell dysfunction were more closely associated with diabetes conversion than insulin resistance indices. Subjects with a 30-min postload glucose ≥165 mg/dL and a 30-min C-peptide <5 ng/mL had 8.83 times greater risk (95% confidence interval 2.98–26.16) of developing diabetes than other prediabetic subjects. Conclusions In Asians, at least Koreans, β-cell dysfunction seems to be the major determinant for diabetes conversion. A combination of high glucose and low C-peptide levels at 30 min after OGTT may be a good predictor for diabetes conversion in this population
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    • "193.30 - 159.10 12.70 59.60 86.70 - 118.90 [11] 13 91.30 158.10 148.50 - 144.80 14.90 96.40 74.80 - 130.20 [11] 14 153.40 238.40 292.58 278.68 239.89 6.47 18.88 22.00 20.64 14.57 [12,13] 15 97.75 164.68 154.54 110.50 87.61 5.52 37.75 42.63 19.58 7.89 [12] [13] "

    37th Canadian Medical Biological Engineering Conference (CMBES 37), Vancouver, BC, Canada; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the status of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance of breast cancer (BC) patient without history of diabetes mellitus (DM) after systemic treatment through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test (IRT). All the 128 BC patients without history of DM after systemic treatment underwent OGTT and IRT test. Fasting and 2-h glucose levels were measured to confirm undiagnosed DM and prediabetes. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index and disposition index (IGI/HOMA-IR). Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI) [Δ insulin/Δ glucose (30-0 min)]. Insulin concentrations during the OGTT and IRT at baseline were used to derive the patterns of insulin secretion curve (pattern 1, pattern 2, pattern 3, pattern 4 and pattern 5), which were used to estimate the risk of developing DM. Of 128 BC patients without history of DM after systemic treatment, there were 46 cases (35.9 %) of NGT, 60 cases (46.9 %) of prediabetes and 22 cases (17.2 %) of DM. The BMI of prediabetes and DM were higher than NGT groups with statistical significance. After adjusted for BMI, IGI was significantly lower in DM group but not significantly different between NGT group and prediabetes group. HOMA-IR, Matsuda index and disposition index were significantly different in DM group compared with NGT group and prediabetes and also significantly different between NGT and prediabetes groups. The total rates of patterns 4 and 5 in NGT and prediabetes groups were 15.3 % (10.9 and 4.4 %) and 48.3 % (31.6 and 16.7 %), respectively. β-Cell dysfunction and insulin resistance may appear in BC patients after systemic treatment. BC patients have high risk in development of DM even in NGT and prediabetes groups confirmed by OGTT.
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