Courses of Parkinson's disease (PD) that are complicated by weight loss result in poorer overall treatment outcome and lower quality of life. To determine the contribution of depression, which has not yet been specified in the etiology of weight loss in PD, symptomatology and anamnesis from 215 outpatients diagnosed with PD were assessed using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychiatric scales. A percentage of 31 comorbid depressed patients and a comparison with a control population allowed an accurate characterization of effect sizes, sex differences, and patterns of the contribution of comorbid depression to weight loss. Our study showed that comorbid depression had a clinically relevant effect concerning reduced body mass index in male (0.3; Hedges' g) but not in female PD patients. Although some possible confounders are not controlled here, our results support the need of monitoring depressive symptoms in the courses of PD, particularly in male patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aging population, the prevalence of the two most common neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, is likely to increase. Given the presence of disease symptoms that are also risk factors for poor nutritional status, weight loss and malnutrition are commonly reported as issues. However, a consensus has not been reached regarding the prevalence and significance of poor nutritional status. Using validated nutrition screening and assessment tools, 14.1–55.9% and 0–12.6% of people with mild Alzheimer’s disease are at risk of malnutrition and malnourishment, respectively, while 17.2–23.5% and 0–40% of people with mild to severe Parkinson’s disease are at risk of malnutrition and malnourishment, respectively. Disease-specific factors are predictive of nutritional status, and greater disease severity is particularly important. Nutrition intervention data are lacking, but needed, for both diseases. Nutrition screening should occur early in the disease by health professionals with regular patient contact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on eating behaviours has extensively highlighted that cognitive systems interact with the met-abolic system in driving food intake and in influencing body weight regulation. Parkinson's disease is a good model for studying these complex interactions since alterations in both body weight and cogni-tive domains have been frequently reported among these patients. Interestingly, even if different non-motor symptoms may characterize the course of the disease, their contribution to weight and food preference has been poorly investigated. This review describes body weight alterations and eating habits in patients with Parkinson's disease, including those who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery. In particular, the review considers the link between non-motor symptoms, affecting sensory perception, cognition, mood and motivation, and food intake and weight alterations. The take home message is twofold. First, we recommend a comprehensive approach in order to develop effective strategies in the manage-ment of patients' weight. Second, we also suggest that investigating this issue in patients with Parkinson's disease may provide some useful information about the mechanisms underlying food and weight reg-ulation in healthy subjects.
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