Mental health in american colleges and universities: Variation across student subgroups and across campuses
ABSTRACT We estimated the prevalence and correlates of mental health problems among college students in the United States. In 2007 and 2009, we administered online surveys with brief mental health screens to random samples of students at 26 campuses nationwide. We used sample probability weights to adjust for survey nonresponse. A total of 14,175 students completed the survey, corresponding to a 44% participation rate. The prevalence of positive screens was 17.3% for depression, 4.1% for panic disorder, 7.0% for generalized anxiety, 6.3% for suicidal ideation, and 15.3% for nonsuicidal self-injury. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, race/ethnicity, religiosity, relationship status, living on campus, and financial situation. The prevalence of conditions varied substantially across the campuses, although campus-level variation was still a small proportion of overall variation in student mental health. The findings offer a starting point for identifying individual and contextual factors that may be useful to target in intervention strategies.
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- "Finally, we integrate prior findings on seasonal and racial/ethnic group differences in the separate literatures on vitamin D sufficiency and depressive symptoms (Eisenberg et al., 2013; Ganji et al., 2010; Hollis, 2005; Norman, 1998). That is, we hypothesize that any differences in depressive symptoms by season or race/ethnicity will be explained in part by group differences in vitamin D levels (i.e., indirect effects). "
ABSTRACT: There have been few studies of whether vitamin D insufficiency is linked with depression in healthy young women despite women׳s high rates of both problems. Female undergraduates (n=185) living in the Pacific Northwest during fall, winter, and spring academic terms completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale weekly for 4 weeks (W1-W5). We measured serum levels of vitamin D3 and C (ascorbate; as a control variable) in blood samples collected at W1 and W5. Vitamin D insufficiency (<30ng/mL) was common at W1 (42%) and W5 (46%), and rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were 34-42% at W1-W5. Lower W1 vitamin D3 predicted clinically significant depressive symptoms across W1-W5 (β=-0.20, p<0.05), controlling for season, BMI, race/ethnicity, diet, exercise, and time outside. There was some evidence that lower levels of depressive symptoms in Fall participants (vs. Winter and Spring) were explained by their higher levels of vitamin D3. W1 depressive symptoms did not predict change in vitamin D3 levels from W1 to W5. Findings are consistent with a temporal association between low levels of vitamin D and clinically meaningful depressive symptoms. The preventive value of supplementation should be tested further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.02.016 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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- "Studies among undergraduate students have reported non-significant differences between the prevalence of depression among female and male undergraduate students in the US [19-21]. However, in a national report that assessed the US prevalence of diagnosed or treated depression among college students, 12.5% of females versus 6.7% of males reported depression in the previous year (p-value <0.001) . "
ABSTRACT: The association between student characteristics and depression among students attending women's colleges (single-sex institutions of higher education that exclude or limit males from admission) is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine behavioral and social characteristics associated with depression among students attending a women's college. We administered a cross-sectional Internet-based survey between April and May 2012 to students (n = 277) enrolled at a private women's college in the southeastern US. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) instruments measured self-reported depression. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to estimate adjusted associations. Prevalence of depression measured by CES-D and DASS-21 instruments was 26.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20.8-32.3%) and 26.0% (95% CI 20.4-32.3%), respectively. After adjusting for confounders, absence of strong social support (prevalence odds ratio [OR] = 4.3, 95% CI 1.4-13.7), history of mental health disorder (OR = 4.8 95% CI 1.9-12.4), and poor sleep hygiene (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.8) were associated with depression. This cross-sectional survey identified absence of strong social support, history of mental health disorder, and poor sleep hygiene as potential predictors of depression among students attending a women's college. Further investigation of these factors may inform depression interventions for students attending women's colleges and other undergraduate student populations.BMC Women's Health 01/2014; 14(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-14-8 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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- "The greater the psychosocial health, the better is the well-being and the capacity to overcome troubles and lifelong problems (1). Mental health among university students accounts as vital and escalating public health problem for which epidemiological data is required and should be addressed as a priority problem (2). Medical education is among the most challenging and stressful ones. "
ABSTRACT: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010-2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale was used. The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001). Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.85-5.82, P < 0.001). Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi) & having emotional failure. Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.Iranian Journal of Public Health 07/2013; 42(7):726-36. · 0.55 Impact Factor