We aimed to investigate the relation of trauma profile to schizophrenia psychopathology in a sample of Egyptian drug-naïve adolescent patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In addition, a hypothesized mediating effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this relation was formally tested. We assessed 74 eligible outpatients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for measuring psychopathology. Trauma histories were recorded with the help of the Cumulative Trauma Measure. Serum BDNF levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total cumulative trauma, personal identity trauma, and survival trauma were found to be the significant predictors for schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF fully mediated the associations between total cumulative trauma and overall schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF also mediated the associations between some types of trauma and both PANSS-positive and PANSS-negative symptom factors. We concluded that total cumulative trauma and certain trauma types are linked with schizophrenia psychopathology. BDNF appears to mediate these links.
"Abandonment, sexual abuse, and physical abuse are other forms of Type II trauma (Terr, 1991). Type I traumas, on the other hand, involve exposure to a singular traumatic event (e.g., car accident), and Type III traumas involve exposure to micro-or macroaggressive acts that are continuous and ongoing (e.g., racial and gender discrimination; Kira, 2001; Kira, Fawzi, & Fawzi, 2013; Kira, Lewandowski, Templin, Ramaswamy, Ozkan, et al., 2008; Kira, Smith, Lewandowski, & Templin, 2010). Bullying might be best classified as a personal identity Type II trauma; however, it is rarely conceptualized or identified in the literature as a type of traumatic stress. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study explored the effects of bullying victimization (BV), as a Type II traumatic stressor, on intelligence quotient (IQ), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complex PTSD symptoms. Participants were 390 African American and Iraqi refugee adolescents. Measures of BV, cumulative life trauma, PTSD, discrimination, and IQ were administered. Correlational, multilevel regression, and path analyses were conducted. BV, independent of cumulative trauma, and discrimination were found to have significant direct effects on increased PTSD symptoms and significant direct and indirect negative effects on perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. BV was also associated with increases in the discrepancy between perceptual reasoning and verbal comprehension. The implications of these results for the prevention and treatment of bullying victims are discussed.
Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 05/2014; 23(5):431-453. DOI:10.1080/10926771.2014.904463
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence that childhood adversities are risk factors for psychosis has accumulated rapidly. Research into the mechanisms underlying these relationships has focused, productively, on psychological processes, including cognition, attachment and dissociation. In 2001, the traumagenic neurodevelopmental model sought to integrate biological and psychological research by highlighting the similarities between the structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of abused children and adults diagnosed with schizophrenia'. No review of relevant literature has subsequently been published. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to summarize the literature on biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis published since 2001. A comprehensive search for relevant papers was undertaken via Medline, PubMed and psycINFO. In total, 125 papers were identified, with a range of methodologies, and provided both indirect support for and direct confirmation of the traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Integrating our growing understanding of the biological sequelae of early adversity with our knowledge of the psychological processes linking early adversity to psychosis is valuable both theoretically and clinically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adaptation to stress leads to the activation of several biological systems that maintain homeostasis and enable effective coping with challenges. These adaptive processes have been designated as 'allostasis'. However, overactivation or aberrant performance of allostatic mechanisms due to chronic stress exposure may exert systemic deleterious effects. This condition has been called 'allostatic load' (AL). The AL concept is a useful framework allowing to understand the mulitisystem physiological dysregulation due to cumulative stressful demands over the lifespan. In the recent years, the AL paradigm has emerged as a novel concept explaining the morbidity and mortality with respect to several mental disorders. In this article, we suggest that AL provides a useful framework to describe schizophrenia-its etiology, course, outcome and comorbidities. Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that is characterized by multidimensional psychopathology including positive and negative symptoms, affective symptoms and cognitive impairment with several known risk factors and accompanying pathophysiological correlates. However, there is a great need to refine and integrate the plethora of findings reported from various research perspectives. We propose that AL is a meaningful concept integrating findings on pathophysiological underpinnings, factors influencing course of the disorder and the development co-occurring physical health impairments as well as substance use disorders in schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is an urgent necessity to investigate AL and its correlates in schizophrenia as no studies in this field have been performed so far.
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