An alternative method for the determination of estrogens in surface water and wastewater treatment plant effluent using pre-column trimethylsilyl derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT A procedure using pre-column trimethylsilyl derivatization and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed and applied in determining trace estrogens in complex matrix. Main conditions were optimized, including pH value, salinity of water sample, elution reagents, clean procedure, derivative solvent and temperature. The optimized method was used to determine steroid estrogens in surface water and effluents of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Low detection limits of 0.01, 0.03, 0.03, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.13 ng/l for DES, E1, E2, EE2, E3 and E(V), respectively were obtained under optimism condition. No apparent interferences appeared in chromatography in comparison with ultrapure water blank. Mean recovery ranged from 72.6% to 111.0% with relative standard deviation of 1.1-4.6% for spiked surface water, and from 66.6% to 121.1% with relative standard deviation of 1.5-4.7% for spiked effluent of WWTP. The results suggested that the optimized method provides a robust solution for the determination of trace steroid estrogens in complex matrix.
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ABSTRACT: Concentration levels of six natural and anthropogenic origin steroid estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and estradiol-17-valerate (Ev), from different effluents in Beijing were assessed. Sampling sites include two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a chemical plant, a hospital, a pharmaceutical factory, a hennery, and a fish pool. In general, concentrations of estrogens in the effluents varied from no detection (nd) to 11.1 ng/l, 0.7 to 1.2 × 10(3) ng/l, nd to 67.4 ng/l, nd to 4.1 × 10(3) ng/l, nd to 1.2 × 10(3) ng/l, and nd to 11.2 ng/l for DES, E1, E2, EE2, E3, and Ev, respectively. The concentration levels of steroid estrogens from different effluents decreased in the order of pharmaceutical factory and WWTP inlets > hospital > hennery > chemical factory > fish pool. This study indicated that natural estrogens E1, E2, and E3 and synthetic estrogen EE2 are the dominant steroid estrogens found in the different Beijing effluents. For source identification, an indicator (hE = E3/(E1 + E2 + E3)) was used to trace human estrogen excretion. Accordingly, hE in effluents from the hospital and WWTP inlets exceeded 0.4, while much smaller values were obtained for the other effluents. Human excretions were the major contributor of natural estrogens in municipal wastewater. Estimation results demonstrated that direct discharge was the major contributor of steroid estrogen pollution in receiving waters.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2011; 184(3):1719-29. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concern over steroid estrogens has increased rapidly in recent years due to their adverse health effects. Effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is the main pollutant source for environmental water. To understand the pollutant level and fate of steroid estrogens in WWTPs, the occurrence of estrone (E1), 17-β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17-β-ethinylestradiol (EE2) was investigated in the Gaobeidian WWTP in Beijing, China. Water samples from influent as well as effluent from second sedimentation tanks and advanced treatment processes were taken monthly during 2006 to 2007. In influent, steroid estrogen concentrations varied from 11.6 to 1.1 × 10(2) ng/l, 3.7 to 1.4 × 10(2) ng/l, no detection (nd) to 7.6×10(2) ng/l and nd to 3.3 × 10(2) ng/l for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively. Compared with documented values, the higher steroid estrogen concentrations in the WWTP influent may be due to higher population density, higher birthrate, less dilution, and different sampling time. Results revealed that a municipal WWTP with an activated sludge system incorporating anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic processes could eliminate natural and synthetic estrogens effectively. The mean elimination efficiencies were 83.2%, 96.4%, 98.8%, and 93.0% for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively. The major removal mechanism for natural estrogens and synthetic estrogen EE2 were biodegradation and sorption on the basis of mass balance in water, suspension particles, and sludge. In the WWTP effluent, however, the highest concentrations of E1, E2, E3, and EE2 attained were 74.2, 3.9, 5.1, and 4.6 ng/l, respectively. This is concerning as residual steroid estrogens in WWTP effluent could lead to pollution of the receiving water. Advanced flocculation treatment was applied in the WWTP and transformed the residual estrogen conjugates to free species, which were reduced further by filtration with removal shifting from 32% to 57% for natural estrogen, although no EE2 was removed.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2011; 184(11):6799-813. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We study pulse dynamics in one-dimensional heterogeneous media. In particular we focus on the case where the pulse is close to the singularity of codim 2 type consisting of drift and saddle-node instabilities in a parameter space. We assume that the heterogeneity is of jump type, namely one of the coefficients of the system undergoes an abrupt change at one point in the space. Depending on the height of this jump, the responses of pulse behavior are penetration, splitting, and rebound. Taking advantage of the fact that pulse is close to the singularity, the PDE dynamics can be reduced to a finite-dimensional system, which displays the three behaviors. Moreover it takes a universal form independent of model systems, and is valid for much more general heterogeneities such as bump, periodic, and random cases.Hokkaido Mathematical Journal 02/2007; 36(2007). · 0.26 Impact Factor