41-year-old woman with Fever, neutropenia, and elevated transaminase levels.

Resident in Internal Medicine, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Impact Factor: 5.81). 01/2013; 88(1):113-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.06.028
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Opportunistic fungal infections are becoming more frequent complications during cancer therapy, after organ transplantation and in AIDS infections, especially after better control of bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. Periods of prolonged neutropenia with neutrophil count less than 0.5 x 10(9)/L longer than 7 days, are the most important risk factors for the development of systemic fungal infections. Especially susceptible are the patients during treatment of acute leukemia, or after bone marrow transplantation. The most frequent causing agents of systemic fungal infections are Candida and Aspergillus species, than Cryptococcus neoformans and Mucor. Some other unusual species such Fusarium, Trichosporon, non-albicans Candida species of Candida are becoming more frequent, and is frequently resistant to conventional therapy. The difficulties in early and precise diagnosis of fungal infections, and the lack of adequate and efficient drugs are responsible for the high mortality of immunocompromised patients, even in potentially curable diseases. The recognition of risk factors, introduction of prophylactic measures, application of empirical antifungal therapy, are the procedures for the reduction of morbidity and mortality of invasive fungal infections. Fluconazole administration in prevention of systemic fungal infections, has become the standard approach, especially after bone marrow transplantation, while the oral itraconazole solution, has even more extended activity. Fluconazole appears successful also in the treatment of systemic Candidiasis. Conventional amphotericin-B is still the "gold standard" in the treatment of fungal infections. The new lipid formulations of amphotericin-B, intravenous itraconazole, has an identical efficacy, but are less toxic than conventional amphotericin-B. Several new promising agents are in the stage of clinical investigation like voriconazole, caspofungin, mycafungin and some other.
    Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 02/2004; 58(4):251-61.
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    ABSTRACT: We report 5 cases of acute liver failure related to herpes simplex (HSV) infection in 1 immunocompetent and 4 immunosuppressed patients. One patient was too ill for liver transplantation indication. Three patients, among the 4 listed, underwent liver transplantation. Three patients died 11 days to 1 year after transplantation and 2 patients died 2 to 3 days after admission. All presented with fever and none with skin lesions. The diagnosis of HSV-related hepatitis was made antemortem in only 2 patients on the basis of positive blood cultures and/or immunohistochemic findings. In the remaining patients, HSV diagnosis was made retrospectively on further histologic and virologic investigations. Primary HSV infection was certain or likely in all cases, including an HSV2 superinfection of an anti-HSV1-positive patient and two HSV superinfections of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver disease. In these latter patients, HSV diagnosis was totally unsuspected, despite fever. HSV superinfection has significantly contributed to liver dysfunction aggravation and death. In conclusion, the diagnosis of HSV hepatitis is difficult to establish in the absence of specific clinical signs. This may suggest the need for early administration of acyclovir in patients with suspected HSV hepatitis, without waiting for virologic confirmation. Diagnosis methods providing fast results (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) should be implemented.
    Liver Transplantation 12/2005; 11(12):1550-5. DOI:10.1002/lt.20545 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of ischemic hepatitis, otherwise known as "shock liver," is poorly understood, although it is believed to be the result of a reduction in systemic blood flow as typically occurs in shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of this phenomenon as well as other clinical features in patients with ischemic hepatitis. We identified a cohort of 31 patients (case group) who met the most commonly accepted definition of ischemic hepatitis (an acute reversible elevation in either the serum alanine or aspartate aminotransferase level of at least 20 times the upper limit of normal, excluding known causes of acute hepatitis or hepatocellular injury, in an appropriate clinical setting). We also evaluated the clinical features and serum aminotransferase levels in a cohort (the control group) of 31 previously healthy patients who sustained major nonhepatic trauma at San Francisco General Hospital, a major trauma center. Both groups of patients had documented systolic blood pressures <75 mm Hg for at least 15 minutes. Clinical and hemodynamic (invasive and noninvasive) data were recorded. Despite the marked reduction in blood pressure, no patient in the control group developed ischemic hepatitis. The mean (+/- SD) peak serum aspartate aminotransferase level in the control group was only 78 +/- 72 IU, in contrast with a mean peak of 2,088 +/- 2,165 IU in the case group. All 31 patients with ischemic hepatitis had evidence of underlying organic heart disease, 29 (94%) of whom had right-sided heart failure. Systemic hypotension or shock alone did not lead to ischemic hepatitis in any patient. The vast majority of patients with ischemic hepatitis had severe underlying cardiac disease that had often led to passive congestion of the liver. These data lead us to propose that right-sided heart failure, with resultant hepatic venous congestion, may predispose the liver to hepatic injury induced by a hypotensive event.
    The American Journal of Medicine 08/2000; 109(2):109-13. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00461-7 · 5.30 Impact Factor