Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Current Trends in Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, and Up-to-Date Treatment Recommendations.

Division of Rheumatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: .
Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Impact Factor: 5.79). 01/2013; 88(1):83-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.10.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, there have been important advances in the understanding of the pathophysiologic features, assessment, and management of patients with a newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Myositis-specific autoantibodies have been identified to define patient subgroups and offer prognostic implications. Similarly, proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and type 1 interferon-dependent genes, may serve as potential biomarkers of disease activity in adult and juvenile patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging has become an important modality for the assessment of muscle inflammation in adult IIM and juvenile DM. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies also are being recognized as a subset of IIM triggered by medications such as statins. However, confusion exists regarding effective management strategies for patients with IIM because of the lack of large-scale, randomized, controlled studies. This review focuses primarily on our current management and treatment algorithms for IIM including the care of pediatric patients with juvenile DM. For this review, we conducted a search of PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published from January 1, 1970, to December 1, 2011, using the following search terms: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis, sporadic inclusion body myositis, inclusion body myositis, inflammatory myositis, myositis, myopathies, pathogenesis, therapy, and treatment. Studies published in English were selected for inclusion in our review as well as additional articles identified from bibliographies.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical registries and biorepositories have proven extremely useful in many studies of diseases, especially rare diseases. Given their rarity and diversity, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, or myositis syndromes, have benefited from individual researchers' collections of cohorts of patients. Major efforts are being made to establish large registries and biorepositories that will allow many additional studies to be performed that were not possible before. Here, we describe the registries developed by investigators and patient support groups that are currently available for collaborative research purposes.
    Current Opinion in Rheumatology 09/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000119 · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Although dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) share many clinical features in common, they have distinct pathophysiological and histological features. It is possible that these distinctions reflect also macroscopically, for example, in muscle alterations seen in magnetic resonance images (MRI). Objectives To compare simultaneously the MRI of various muscle compartments of the thighs of adult DM and PM. Materials The present study is a cross‐sectional that included, between 2010 and 2013, 11 newly diagnosed DM and 11 PM patients (Bohan and Peter's criteria, 1975), with clinical and laboratory activity. They were valued at RM thighs, T1 and T2 with fat suppression, 1.5 T MRI scanner sequences. Results The mean age at the time of MRI, the time between onset of symptoms and the realization of the MRI distribution of sex and drug therapy were comparable between the two groups (p>0.050). Concerning the MRI, muscle edema was significantly found in DM, and mainly in the proximal region of the muscles. The area of fat replacement was found predominantly in PM. The partial fat replacement area occurred mainly in the medial and distal region, whereas the total fat replacement area occurred mainly in the distal muscles. There was no area of muscle fibrosis. Conclusions DM and PM have different characteristics on MRI muscles, alike pathophysiological and histological distinctions.
    Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia 08/2014; 54(4):295–300. DOI:10.1016/j.rbr.2014.04.004 · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis (DM) is one of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies caused by complement-mediated vasculopathy or vasculitis in the muscle. Although the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has been reported to be involved as a result of vasculitis or vasculopathy, ulceration in the pharynx is a rare manifestation of DM. A 54-year-old woman complaining of muscle weakness in the extremities, low-grade fever, and dysphagia was diagnosed as having DM. Despite medical treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, her DM progressed rapidly, leading to exacerbation of the dysphagia. About 3 weeks after undergoing tracheostomy as a preventive measure against aspiration, the patient developed intractable respiratory tract hemorrhage. Repeated laryngoendoscopy revealed a bleeding ulceration in the pharynx that required hemostasis with electric cautery under general anesthesia. No bleeding recurred thereafter. Histopathologically, the pharynx exhibited nonspecific inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle tissue. This rare manifestation may be considered in cases of DM with unexplainable airway bleeding.
    01/2014; 2014:854841. DOI:10.1155/2014/854841


Available from