Update on nutrients involved in maintaining healthy bone
ABSTRACT Osteoporosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and influences quality of life, as well as life expectancy. Currently, there is a growing interest among the medical scientists in search of specific nutrients and/or bioactive compounds of natural origin for the prevention of disease and maintenance of bone health. Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, a recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Based on this review of the literature, supplementation with vitamins B, C, K, and silicon could be recommended for proper maintenance of bone health, although further clinical studies are needed. The results of studies on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, copper, selenium, and strontium are not conclusive, although studies in vitro and in animal models are interesting and promising.
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ABSTRACT: The trace element selenium (Se) influences development of musculoskeletal system modifying expression of selenoproteins: glutathione peroxidases (GPx), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) and iodothyronine deiodinases (D). These enzymes participate in cellular processes acting as antioxidants, and modulating redox status and metabolism of thyroid hormones. In human osteoblasts are expressed GPx, TrxR, D and selenoprotein P. Fibroblasts and skeletal muscle cells have expression of selenoprotein N except these three families' selenoenzymes. The influence of selenoproteins expression on the antioxidative status, effect of thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and growth factors plays important role for development and functioning of bones and muscles. This study presents participation of selenoproteins in normal and pathological remodeling of musculoskeletal system.
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ABSTRACT: Premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for Breast Cancer (BC) treatment have significant bone loss. This high bone mineral density loss can lead to an increased risk of fractures. In this study, there were evaluated parameters involved in osteoporosis when rats were subjected to a chemotherapy regimen (TC) and/or irradiation (IR). Female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control (G1), TC+IR (G2) and IR (G3). The animals were euthanized after 5 months at the end of treatment and their femurs were excised and dissected. Sections of 10 μm thick were used for μXRF analysis at the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light. The uteri of these rats were collected and weighed. The obtained results showed that animals from G2 had a significant reduction (p<0.05) of uterine mass when compared to control. The qualitative analysis performed by μXRF showed that animals from G2 had iron in bone composition of the femurs. This same result was notobserved in animals from G1 and G3 groups. These results suggest that early menopause occurs and osteoporosis begins, probably because of the absence, or reduced, production of estrogen. The presence of iron in the G2 samples in indicates the process of osteoporosis, because according to literature, this ion is competitive with calcium ions.Radiation Physics and Chemistry 02/2014; 95:274-279. DOI:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2013.04.031 · 1.19 Impact Factor