Department of Applied Health Sciences, Section of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pavia, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: .
Osteoporosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and influences quality of life, as well as life expectancy. Currently, there is a growing interest among the medical scientists in search of specific nutrients and/or bioactive compounds of natural origin for the prevention of disease and maintenance of bone health. Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, a recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Based on this review of the literature, supplementation with vitamins B, C, K, and silicon could be recommended for proper maintenance of bone health, although further clinical studies are needed. The results of studies on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, potassium, magnesium, copper, selenium, and strontium are not conclusive, although studies in vitro and in animal models are interesting and promising.
"It has been documented that the regular intake of these vitamins B prevents brain shrinkage, and the resulting dementia, among persons with a high homocysteine concentration in blood (Douaud et al., 2013), whereas folate intake below the recommended daily allowance was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment (Agnew-Blais et al., 2015). Homocysteine concentration was inversely related with the concentration of vitamins B and bone density (Ebesunun et al., 2014; Enneman et al., 2014), and vitamin B supplementation may be part of a strategy to maintain bone health (Rondanelli et al., 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term intake of a judiciously composed nutriceutical containing low-dose vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and particular herbal preparations seems justified for older persons who take medication, or who consume an unbalanced diet, or who are exposed to environmental toxins. Recent reports suggest these nutriceuticals may delay age-related diseases and the occurrence of cancer, and reduce mortality in apparently healthy ageing men. Food supplementation with a nutriceutical that was formulated particularly for ageing men should result in an increase of at least one quality-adjusted life year and may lower the financial and social burden of disease in elderly people.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trace element selenium (Se) influences development of musculoskeletal system modifying expression of selenoproteins: glutathione peroxidases (GPx), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) and iodothyronine deiodinases (D). These enzymes participate in cellular processes acting as antioxidants, and modulating redox status and metabolism of thyroid hormones. In human osteoblasts are expressed GPx, TrxR, D and selenoprotein P. Fibroblasts and skeletal muscle cells have expression of selenoprotein N except these three families' selenoenzymes. The influence of selenoproteins expression on the antioxidative status, effect of thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and growth factors plays important role for development and functioning of bones and muscles. This study presents participation of selenoproteins in normal and pathological remodeling of musculoskeletal system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy
for Breast Cancer (BC) treatment have significant bone loss. This high
bone mineral density loss can lead to an increased risk of fractures. In
this study, there were evaluated parameters involved in osteoporosis
when rats were subjected to a chemotherapy regimen (TC) and/or
irradiation (IR). Female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control
(G1), TC+IR (G2) and IR (G3). The animals were euthanized after 5 months
at the end of treatment and their femurs were excised and dissected.
Sections of 10 μm thick were used for μXRF analysis at the
National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light. The uteri of these rats were
collected and weighed. The obtained results showed that animals from G2
had a significant reduction (p<0.05) of uterine mass when compared to
control. The qualitative analysis performed by μXRF showed that
animals from G2 had iron in bone composition of the femurs. This same
result was notobserved in animals from G1 and G3 groups. These results
suggest that early menopause occurs and osteoporosis begins, probably
because of the absence, or reduced, production of estrogen. The presence
of iron in the G2 samples in indicates the process of osteoporosis,
because according to literature, this ion is competitive with calcium
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