"Numeracy level has been shown to predict self-efficacy in asthma (Apter et al., 2009). While both selfefficacy to manage one's diabetes and health literacy or numeracy skill have been related to glycemic control (Cavanaugh et al., 2008; Sarkar & Schillinger, 2008), the pathways through which these factors relate to each other and, in turn, impact glycemic control remains unknown. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the relationship between health literacy, numeracy, and glycemic control are unclear. We explored the role of diabetes self-efficacy in the predicted pathway linking health literacy and numeracy to glycemic control (A1C). Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 383) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study at primary care and diabetes clinics at three medical centers. Data collected included demographic information, health literacy, general numeracy, and A1C. Path models estimated relations among health literacy, numeracy, and diabetes self-efficacy as predictors of A1C. Health literacy (r = 0.14, p < .01) and numeracy (r = 0.17, p < .001) were each associated with greater diabetes self-efficacy, and greater diabetes self-efficacy was associated with lower A1C levels (r = -0.25, p < .001). When considered in combination, numeracy was related to diabetes self-efficacy (r = 0.13, p < .05), and the effect of health literacy on diabetes self-efficacy was reduced to non-significance (r = 0.06, p = .30). Health literacy and numeracy are each associated with greater diabetes self-efficacy, and greater diabetes self-efficacy is associated with lower A1C levels. Diabetes self-efficacy may be an important target of interventions to improve diabetes control and promote health equity related to health literacy and general numeracy skills needed for diabetes management.
Journal of Health Communication 08/2010; 15 Suppl 2(Suppl. 2):146-58. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2010.499980
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are limited published data characterizing severe hypoglycemia complicating type 2 diabetes.
The objective of the study was to determine the incidence and predictors of severe hypoglycemia in community-dwelling type 2 patients.
This was a longitudinal observational cohort study.
This was a community-based study.
There were 616 patients (mean age 67.0 yr, 52.3% males, median diabetes duration 7.7 yr) assessed in 1998 and followed up to the end of June 2006.
Severe hypoglycemia defined as that requiring ambulance attendance, emergency department services, and/or hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine predictors of first episode, and Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models identified predictors of frequency.
Fifty-two (8.4%) experienced 66 episodes during 3953 patient-years (incidence 1.7 per 100 patient-years). Those experiencing severe hypoglycemia had one to four episodes. Significant independent predictors of time to first episode were duration of insulin treatment, estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), peripheral neuropathy, education beyond primary level, and past severe hypoglycemia. The zero-inflated negative binomial provided the best model of severe hypoglycemia frequency. Lower fasting serum glucose and higher glycosylated hemoglobin were significantly associated with frequency, whereas patients at minimal risk of repeated severe hypoglycemia were unlikely to use insulin or to have short-duration insulin treatment, to have renal impairment or peripheral neuropathy, or to be educated beyond primary level.
Duration of insulin treatment was confirmed as an independent risk factor for severe hypoglycemia. The novel association with educational attainment suggests knowledge-driven intensive glycemic self-management. The positive relationship between frequency and glycosylated hemoglobin may identify patients with unstable glycemic control.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2010; 95(5):2240-7. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-2828
Journal of diabetes science and technology 11/2010; 4(6):1284-7. DOI:10.1177/193229681000400601
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