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    ABSTRACT: The volatile oil of tangerine fruit (Citrus reticulata) was extracted by steam distillation and assessed for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The volatile oil was tested against some Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter spp); Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and a fungus (Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined with concentrations of oil extract ranging from 0.87 to 445 mg/ml. Result of the study showed that the oil has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity. MIC recorded were S. aureus (0.74 mg/ml), S. aureus ATTC 25923 (2.46 mg/ml), E. faecalis (1.26 mg/ml), S. typhi (2.07 mg/ml), K. pneumoniae (0.56 mg/ml), E. coli ATTC 35218 (0.19 mg/ml), E. coli (1.95 mg/ml), P. aeruginosa (0.97 mg/ml), C. albicans (0.68 mg/ml). Antioxidant screening with 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was negative. Analysis of the chemical constituent by GC-MS showed the presence of D-limonene as the major constituent. Other constituents found were α α α α-pinene and β β β β-pinene.
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1993; 90(17):7915-22. DOI:10.1073/pnas.90.17.7915 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease and many types of cancer depend on the in vivo conversion of cellular macromolecules or of carcinogens to specific reactive, oxidized forms. For that reason, health promoting nutrition involves the daily intake of five to 10 vegetables and fruits, fruit juices, red wine and tea that are rich sources of micronutrients with antioxidant properties, including the antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. Tomatoes contain lycopene, a stable, active antioxidant. Many vegetables contain quercetin and related polyphenolic compounds. Tea is a source of epigallocatechin gallate, in green tea, and theaflavin and the associated thearubigins, in black tea. Red wine contains resveratrol. The diverse antioxidants in foods, red wine and tea provide the necessary antioxidant resources for the body to control oxidation reactions in the body with possible adverse consequences. For example, the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol yields a product that damages the vascular system. Thus, a lower intake of saturated fats to decrease the levels of LDL cholesterol, together with an adequate intake of antioxidants, is the optimal approach to lower heart disease risk. Cancer of the stomach involves the consumption of salted, pickled foods yielding direct-acting carcinogens, and their formation is inhibited by vitamins C and E. Cancer in the colon, breast, prostate and pancreas may be caused by a new class of carcinogens, the heterocyclic amines, formed during the broiling or frying of creatinine-containing foods, including fish and meats. Their formation and action can be inhibited by antioxidants such as those in soy, tea, vitamin C and also by the synthetic antioxidants BHA or BHT. The growth, cell proliferation and development of abnormal preneoplastic and neoplastic cells also involves oxidation reactions, including the formation of active oxygen or peroxy compounds. Such reactions can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as those in tea, tomatoes or vegetables. Even ageing and longevity in good health would be favoured by the availability of adequate amounts of varied antioxidants. Prevention of the formation and of action of reactive products by antioxidants as present in fruits, vegetables, tomatoes, red wine and tea is of great public health importance in decreasing the risk of major diseases. Prevention is the optimal approach to disease control, and also as an effective route to lower costs of medical care.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 09/1999; 37(9-10):943-8. DOI:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00086-1 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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