Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in insulin- and non-insulin-using adults with diabetes: consensus recommendations for improving SMBG accuracy, utilization, and research.
ABSTRACT Current clinical guidelines for diabetes care encourage self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to improve glycemic control. Specific protocols remain variable, however, particularly among non-insulin-using patients. This is due in part to efficacy studies that neglect to consider (1) the performance of monitoring equipment under real-world conditions, (2) whether or how patients have been taught to take action on test results, and (3) the physiological, behavioral, and social circumstances in which SMBG is carried out. As such, a multidisciplinary group of specialists, including several endocrinologists, a health psychologist, a diabetes nurse practitioner, and a patient advocate (the Panel), discuss within this review article how the potential of SMBG might be fully realized in today's healthcare environment. The resulting recommendations cover technological, clinical, behavioral, and research considerations with the aim of achieving short- and long-term benefits, ranging from fewer hypoglycemic episodes to lower complication-related costs. The panel also made suggestions for designing future studies that increase the ability to discern optimal models of SMBG utilization for individuals with diabetes who may, or may not, use insulin.
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ABSTRACT: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 12/2012; 4(1):54. · 1.53 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of Internet therapeutic intervention on A1C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of an Internet-based glucose monitoring system (IBGMS) on A1C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. This trial involved 50 patients randomly assigned to receive either conventional treatment alone or with additional follow-up through an IBGMS for 6 months. Patients randomized to the intervention group uploaded blood glucose readings every 2 weeks to a secure Web site for review and receipt of feedback from their endocrinologist. A1C and laboratory test results were collected at 0, 3, and 6 months. The baseline parameters were not significantly different. Over a 6-month follow-up, A1C dropped from 8.8 to 7.6% (P < 0.001) in the intervention group compared with 8.5 to 8.4% (P = 0.51) in the control group. The use of IBGMS significantly improved A1C levels in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin.Diabetes care 08/2010; 33(8):1738-40. · 8.09 Impact Factor
Article: Actionable self-monitoring of blood glucose: redefining the role for patients using multiple daily injection therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) values is an accepted requirement for patients with diabetes using multiple daily injections of insulin. Nevertheless, for many patients, the full value of SMBG has yet to be realized due to a number of factors that contribute to patients not taking appropriate action based on the achieved result. The reasons for this are complex but are related to the burden imposed by performing the tests, the need for complex numerical calculations, and the demand for undertaking this activity multiple times each day. In the near future, SMBG devices are likely to include technological innovations that are aimed at overcoming these barriers, offering "actionable" SMBG for patients using insulin. These innovations should include technologies that will allow customization and individualization based upon specific therapy regimens.Journal of diabetes science and technology 11/2011; 5(6):1584-90.