Pharmaceutical and Herbal Products That May Contribute to Dry Eyes
ABSTRACT : Symptomatic dryness of the eyes is a most common blepharoplasty complication. The authors reviewed the medications and herbal products that may potentiate this complication.
: The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for the years 1991 to 2011. Search terms included "dry eye syndrome," "keratitis sicca," "keratoconjunctivitis sicca," "ocular side effects," "herbal supplements," "herbals and dry eye," "dry eye risk factors," "etiology of dry eye," "drugs side effects," "drugs and dry eye," "dietary supplements," "ocular toxicity," and "tear film." References from herbal product reviews and eligible medication reports were searched for additional articles. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.
: Of 232 articles found to be related to dry eye syndrome and possible risk factors, 196 were excluded because they did not discuss medications or herbal products as risk factors in dry eye syndrome. Thirty-six articles that examined the pathophysiology and risk factors of dry eye were included. Nine books were reviewed that contained some information regarding the association of medications and herbal products with dry eye. These agents were then categorized based on mechanism of action and usage. Medications listed include antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinson drugs, beta-blockers, and hormone replacement therapy. The three main herbal products that contribute to dry eye are niacin, echinacea, and kava. There was a strong association between anticholinergic alkaloids and dry eye.
: This study identifies the medications and herbal products that should be considered when a patient undergoes blepharoplasty and complains of symptoms associated with dryness of the eyes.
- Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 09/2013; 55(9). DOI:10.1167/iovs.13-13166 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sexual health state-of-the-art guidelines provide a thorough overview of conventional prescription options. Yet over the past 10–15 years numerous clinical trials have shown that complementary and alternative (CAM) interventions or dietary supplements may be an option to prevent and treat some forms of erectile dysfunction (ED) and possibly female sexual dysfunction (FSD). One of the barriers to adequately educating health care professionals and patients on effective dietary supplements for ED and FSD may be the unctuous history of this category in terms of over-the-counter products laced with contaminants, adulterants, or drug mimics (e.g., PDE-5 inhibitors). The FDA has removed more products for sexual health from the dietary supplement marketplace compared to any other health condition. Still, despite the questionable efficacy of so many products that will also be reviewed in this chapter, several agents are promising and have ample data to be utilized with patients. These dietary supplements have the potential to be used with and without conventional treatments. And it should be kept in mind that prescription medications for ED and TRT, for example, are not without their controversial issues, including consistently high past and current costs with expectations that create a serious barrier to adequate long-term compliance. Research shows that 50–66 % of the patients starting on PDE-5 inhibitors are no longer continuing to use these agents within 6–12 months of the initial prescription. Dietary supplements such as l-arginine in combination with other agents (e.g., pycnogenol), l-citrulline, Panax ginseng with concentrated ginsenosides, and several others should receive more attention. Perhaps the three biggest issues with many effective dietary supplements for ED are the higher dosages needed (number of pills), cost, in some cases, a complete safety or quality-control profile, and average time needed for efficacy. In the area of TRT, there are also some promising agents, but the vast majority of products have serious issues that make them substandard to prescription TRT at this time. However, this could potentially change in the near future if an ingredient is found to directly or indirectly enhance Leydig cell function, for example. Indeed, contrary to popular belief, there are some CAM options for patients concerned about ED and FSD, but there are very limited to no options currently in the area of TRT.Complementary & Alternative Medicine for Prostate and Urologic Health, 01/2014: pages 107-143; , ISBN: 978-1-4614-8491-2
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ABSTRACT: Aesthetic eyelid surgery involves intricate techniques to improve the appearance of the periorbital region. In the presence of preoperative ptosis, lower lid laxity or malposition, prominent eyes, and xerophthalmia (dry eyes), patients are at an increased risk of developing postoperative complications such as scleral show, ectropion, corneal injury, and persistent ptosis. The authors identify patients at increased risk for functional problems after blepharoplasty and describe detailed preoperative evaluation to identify patients who may be at increased risk prior to surgery. In order to minimize the complications rates associated with blepharoplasty, it is of paramount importance to appreciate and address these functional concerns in the approach to blepharoplasty surgery. After reading this article, the participant should be able to demonstrate a systematic approach to identify high-risk blepharoplasty patients and manage functional issues in both upper and lower blepharoplasty.Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 12/2014; 134(6):1154-70. DOI:10.1097/PRS.0000000000000748 · 2.99 Impact Factor