Reconstruction of Distal Limb Defects with the Free Medial Sural Artery Perforator Flap

Ningbo and Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China From the Department of Hand Surgery, Ningbo Sixth Hospital, and the Department of the Anatomy, Wenzhou Medical College.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.33). 01/2013; 131(1):95-105. DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182729e3c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT : The medial sural artery perforator flap is a reliable cutaneous flap that can be used for soft-tissue reconstruction in the extremities. The purposes of this article are to fully document the vascular basis of the medial sural artery flap and to report its use in reconstruction of distal extremities.
: Ten fresh cadavers were injected with a standardized injection of lead oxide for three-dimensional visualization reconstruction using a spiral computed tomography scanner and specialized software (Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System). The origin, course, and distribution of the medial sural artery perforator in the posterior leg region were observed. Between April of 2007 and December of 2010, the authors used the free medial sural artery perforator flap for distal limb reconstruction in 34 clinical cases. Flaps size varied from 5.5 × 4.5 cm to 14 × 9 cm.
: The average diameter of medial sural artery perforators was 0.9 ± 0.2 mm, with each perforator supplying an average territory of 55 ± 20 cm. Extensive anastomoses were found between the medial sural artery perforators and multiple adjacent source arteries. Twenty-nine flaps (85.3 percent) fully survived and five (14.7 percent) underwent partial necrosis. Follow-up observations were conducted for 6 to 21 months, and the cosmetic results were satisfactory and without apparent bulkiness.
: The free medial sural artery perforator flap transfer is appropriate for extremity defect reconstruction. The donor site not only supplies a thin skin flap but also provides the option to harvest a cross-boundary perforator flaps that could be useful for repairing widespread traumatic soft-tissue defects.
: Therapeutic, IV.

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    ABSTRACT: There is a dearth of detailed published work on the anatomy of ulnar artery perforators. The objective of this study was to fully document the vascular basis of the free proximal ulnar artery perforator flap and report its use in reconstruction of the hand. (1) The ulnar artery perforators were studied in 25 fresh cadavers and 10 cast preparations. Cadavers were injected with lead oxide for 3-dimensional reconstruction. The origin, course, and distribution of the ulnar artery perforators were comprehensively documented. (2) Between August 2011 and January 2013, 29 free proximal ulnar artery perforator flaps were utilized for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the hand in 25 patients. Flap size varied from 3.5 × 2.0 cm to 24.0 × 4.0 cm, with a consistent thickness of approximately 3 mm. (1) There were 7 ± 2.0 ulnar artery perforators. The average external diameter was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm. Each perforator supplied an average area of 26 ± 7.0 cm(2). Extensive anastomoses were found between the ulnar artery perforators and multiple adjacent source arteries. (2) All flaps survived. The clinical results were satisfactory after 10.2 ± 5.3 months of follow-up. The flaps were considered cosmetically acceptable by both patients and doctors. The main advantage of the proximal ulnar artery perforator flap is that it is a thin flap that is ideal for upper extremity reconstruction, either as proximally or distally based local perforator flap or as a free flap. The donor site is excellent, and the vascular anatomy is very consistent.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The proximal peroneal artery perforator (PPAP) flap is a reliable, thin fasciocutaneous flap. The purpose of this article was to report our experience with the use of free PPAP flaps for reconstruction of defects of the distal hand and foot.Patients and Methods From November 2012 to September 2013, 9 patients received reconstruction with 10 free PPAP flaps. The defect locations included the big toe (2 cases), metatarsophalangeal joint (5 cases), dorsal finger (2 cases) and volar finger (1 case). Flaps were raised based on proximal peroneal perforator vessels without sacrificing the peroneal artery. The first dorsal metatarsal artery (5 cases) and digital artery (5 cases) were dissected as recipient vessels.ResultsThe flap sizes varied from 2.5 x 2 cm to 9 x 5 cm. All of flaps were survival after surgery. One flap suffered from venous thrombosis and was successfully salvaged by performing a venous thrombectomy and vein graft. The donor sites were all primarily closed with minimal morbidities. Follow-up observations were conducted for 7 to 20 months, and all patients had good functional recovery with satisfying cosmetic results.Conclusion Perforators arising from the peroneal artery in the proximal lateral leg can be used to design small, pliable fasciocutaneous flaps. Although the pedicle is short, the vessel diameter is adequate for microvascular anastomosis to the distal foot and hand recipient vessels. The free PPAP flap may be a good option for reconstructing distal hand and foot defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the use of a free medial sural artery perforator flap to reconstruct a complex composite defect to the dorsum of the right index finger following a low voltage electrical injury. The resulting defect was a 3.5 × 5 cm full thickness wound, with segmental tendon loss and loss of underlying periosteum. Due to both size and local vascular injury related to the mechanism, free tissue transfer was felt to be the most reliable option to resurface the composite defect in a single stage. The medial sural artery perforator flap, for reasons outlined below, was felt to be the best option: 1. Thin profile. 2. Vascularised fascia can be taken as a tongue, adjacent to the skin paddle: a gliding surface to prevent the tendon graft sticking to exposed bone. 3. Long pedicle: micro-anastomosis away from zone of injury. 4. Little donor site morbidity: can be closed directly (if <6 cm wide) and does not require sacrifice of any major blood vessel. 5. Can be harvested with nerve and tendon from the same wound. 6. Can include as little or as much tissue required and compared to other fasciocutaneous flaps matches the texture and thickness of the hand most closely. We describe the reconstruction of the composite defect on day 42 post-injury, following one prior debridement. This case highlights the versatility and suitability of the medial sural artery flap in the reconstruction of complex hand burns with resulting composite defects.
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