FOLFIRINOX for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: single institution retrospective review of efficacy and toxicity
ABSTRACT Although FOLFIRINOX significantly increases survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) compared to gemcitabine (Conroy et al. N Engl J Med 364:1817-1825, 2011), toxicities have tempered enthusiasm for its use in full doses. To assess the impact of dose attenuations on toxicity and efficacy, we reviewed our institution's experience with FOLFIRINOX in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and MPC. We performed a retrospective review of dose, toxicity, and efficacy of FOLFIRINOX in all patients with LAPC and MPC treated between June 2010 and July 2011 at Yale. Toxicities in all patients and response rate (RR) and survival in previously untreated MPC were compared to data reported by Conroy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Thirty-five patients were treated (16 LAPC; 19 MPC). Twenty-nine patients received dose attenuations with the first cycle. Median relative doses of irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil were less than those reported by Conroy (64 vs. 81 % and 66 vs. 82 %, respectively). RR was 50 % in LAPC and 47 % in MPC, and the latter did not differ significantly from the RR reported by Conroy (p = 0.19). OS at 6 and 12 months in MPC was comparable to OS reported by Conroy. Grade 3/4 toxicities were less than reported by Conroy, including fatigue (p = 0.009) and neutropenia (p < 0.0001). Nine patients experienced transient dysarthria during irinotecan administration. Our findings validate the efficacy and tolerability of FOLFIRINOX in LAPC and MPC and suggest that dose attenuations of irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil improve tolerability without compromising efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: Due to extremely poor prognosis, pancreatic cancer (PDAC) represents the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. For more than a decade, gemcitabine (Gem) has been the mainstay of first-line PDAC treatment. Many efforts aimed at improving single-agent Gem efficacy by either combining it with a second cytotoxic/molecularly targeted agent or pharmacokinetic modulation provided disappointing results. Recently, the field of systemic therapy of advanced PDAC is finally moving forward. Polychemotherapy has shown promise over single-agent Gem: regimens like PEFG-PEXG-PDXG and GTX provide significant potential advantages in terms of survival and/or disease control, although sometimes at the cost of poor tolerability. The PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 was the first phase III trial to provide unequivocal benefit using the polychemotherapy regimen FOLFIRINOX; however the less favorable safety profile and the characteristics of the enrolled population, restrict the use of FOLFIRINOX to young and fit PDAC patients. The nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-Paclitaxel) formulation was developed to overcome resistance due to the desmoplastic stroma surrounding pancreatic cancer cells. Regardless of whether or not this is its main mechanisms of action, the combination of nab-Paclitaxel plus Gem showed a statistically and clinically significant survival advantage over single agent Gem and significantly improved all the secondary endpoints. Furthermore, recent findings on maintenance therapy are opening up potential new avenues in the treatment of advanced PDAC, particularly in a new era in which highly effective first-line regimens allow patients to experience prolonged disease control. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in the systemic treatment of advanced PDAC, mostly focusing on recent findings that have set new standards in metastatic disease. Potential avenues for further development in the metastatic setting and current efforts to integrate new effective chemotherapy regimens in earlier stages of disease (neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and multimodal approaches in both resectable and unresectable patients) are also briefly discussed.04/2015; 21(16):4788-4801. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i16.4788
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ABSTRACT: Despite a few breakthroughs in therapy for advanced disease in the recent years, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma continues to remain one of the most challenging human malignancies to treat. The overall prognosis for the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer is rather dismal, and therefore, more effective treatment options are being desperately sought. The practical goals of management are to improve the cure rates for patients with resectable disease, achieve a higher conversion rate of locally advanced tumor into potentially resectable disease, and finally, prolong the overall survival for those who develop metastatic disease. Our understanding of the complex genetic alterations, the implicated molecular pathways, and the role of desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis has increased several folds in the recent years. This has facilitated the development of novel therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer, some of which are currently under evaluation in ongoing preclinical and clinical studies. This review will summarize the existing treatment approaches for this devastating disease and also discuss the promising therapeutic approaches that are currently in different stages of clinical development.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 05/2015; 8(1):44. DOI:10.1186/s13045-015-0141-5 · 4.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overcoming chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer (PCa) cells should significantly extend patient survival. The current treatment modalities rely on a variety of DNA damaging agents including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and Abraxane that activate cell cycle checkpoints, which allows cells to survive these drug treaments. Indeed, these treatment regimens have only extended patient survival by a few months. The complex microenvironment of PCa tumors has been shown to complicate drug delivery thus decreasing the sensitivity of PCa tumors to chemotherapy. In this study, a genome-wide siRNA library was used to conduct a synthetic lethal screen of Panc1 cells that was treated with gemcitabine. A sublethal dose (50 nM) of the drug was used to model situations of limiting drug availability to PCa tumors in vivo. Twenty-seven validated sensitizer genes were identified from the screen including the Vitamin D receptor (VDR). Gemcitabine sensitivity was shown to be VDR dependent in multiple PCa cell lines in clonogenic survival assays. Sensitization was not achieved through checkpoint override but rather through disrupting DNA repair. VDR knockdown disrupted the cells' ability to form phospho-γH2AX and Rad51 foci in response to gemcitabine treatment. Disruption of Rad51 foci formation, which compromises homologous recombination, was consistent with increased sensitivity of PCa cells to the PARP inhibitor Rucaparib. Thus inhibition of VDR in PCa cells provides a new way to enhance the efficacy of genotoxic drugs.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12/2014; 13(24):3839-56. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.967070 · 5.01 Impact Factor