FOLFIRINOX for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer: single institution retrospective review of efficacy and toxicity
ABSTRACT Although FOLFIRINOX significantly increases survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) compared to gemcitabine (Conroy et al. N Engl J Med 364:1817-1825, 2011), toxicities have tempered enthusiasm for its use in full doses. To assess the impact of dose attenuations on toxicity and efficacy, we reviewed our institution's experience with FOLFIRINOX in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and MPC. We performed a retrospective review of dose, toxicity, and efficacy of FOLFIRINOX in all patients with LAPC and MPC treated between June 2010 and July 2011 at Yale. Toxicities in all patients and response rate (RR) and survival in previously untreated MPC were compared to data reported by Conroy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Thirty-five patients were treated (16 LAPC; 19 MPC). Twenty-nine patients received dose attenuations with the first cycle. Median relative doses of irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil were less than those reported by Conroy (64 vs. 81 % and 66 vs. 82 %, respectively). RR was 50 % in LAPC and 47 % in MPC, and the latter did not differ significantly from the RR reported by Conroy (p = 0.19). OS at 6 and 12 months in MPC was comparable to OS reported by Conroy. Grade 3/4 toxicities were less than reported by Conroy, including fatigue (p = 0.009) and neutropenia (p < 0.0001). Nine patients experienced transient dysarthria during irinotecan administration. Our findings validate the efficacy and tolerability of FOLFIRINOX in LAPC and MPC and suggest that dose attenuations of irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil improve tolerability without compromising efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly becoming a valid treatment option for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). In borderline resectable disease, neoadjuvant therapy is employed to improve the probability of margin-clear resections. In non-metastatic, non-resectable pancreatic cancer, treatment primarily aims to induce disease control, but may achieve conversion to surgical resectability in some patients. Several treatment modalities including chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or the sequential use of both have been investigated in numerous, mostly small and non-randomized studies. Nevertheless, there is a consistent finding that neoadjuvant therapy can induce resectability in up to 30%–40% of LAPC patients. Once resection has been achieved, overall survival appears to be comparable to that observed for primarily resectable patients. Thus, patient selection evolves as an important aspect of neoadjuvant therapy; retrospective analyses identified induction chemotherapy as an appropriate tool to define LAPC patients who may benefit most from subsequent treatment with CRT. The clinical importance of induction chemotherapy may further increase once highly active protocols such as the FOLFIRINOX or the gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel regimen are introduced into novel multimodality treatment concepts.Annals of Oncology 07/2013; 24(10). DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt239 · 6.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review intends to describe recent studies on pancreatic tumor-associated stroma and potential opportunities and limitations to its targeting. One of the defining features of pancreatic cancer is extensive desmoplasia, or an inflammatory, fibrotic reaction. Carcinoma cells live in this complex microenvironment which is comprised of extracellular matrix (ECM), diffusible growth factors, cytokines and a variety of nonepithelial cell types including endothelial cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and stellate cells. In addition to the heterogeneity noted in the nonneoplastic cells within the tumor microenvironment, it has also been recognized that neoplastic cancer cells themselves are heterogeneous, and include a subpopulation of stem-cell like cells within tumors termed cancer stem cells. Due to the failure of current therapeutics to improve outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer, new therapeutic avenues targeting different components of the tumor microenvironment are being investigated. In this review article, we will focus on recent studies regarding the function of the tumor stroma in pancreatic cancer and therapeutic treatments that are being advanced to target the stroma as a critical part of tumor management. Recent studies have shed new light on the contribution of the pancreatic cancer fibroinflammatory stroma to pancreatic cancer biology. Additional studies are needed to better define its full contribution to tumor behavior and how to best understand the optimal ways to develop therapies that counteract its pro-neoplastic properties.Current opinion in gastroenterology 07/2013; 29(5). DOI:10.1097/MOG.0b013e328363affe · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FOLFIRINOX is a highly active regimen for the treatment of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. However, treatment with FOLFIRINOX is associated with relevant toxicity and predictors for response to therapy are warranted. We retrospectively analyzed 49 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with FOLFIRINOX in order to evaluate a possible predictive role of clinical parameters and tumor characteristics for response to chemotherapy. Tumor samples were characterized histopathologically before treatment and expression of p53 and Ki67 was analyzed using automated immunohistochemistry. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survivall (PFS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall objective response rate was 55.1%, the disease control rate was 70.6%. Female gender was associated with a significantly higher disease control rate of 91.7 compared to 48.0% in male patients (p=0.001) which reached 100% in female patients when primarily treated compared to treatment after surgical resection and relapse (77.8%, p=0.057). For all patients median PFS was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.7-4.3 months) and median OS was 13 months (95% CI, 9.4-16.6 months). Female patients showed a tendency towards a longer median PFS (5.0 months, 95% CI, 3.6-6.4 months) compared to males (3.0 months, 95% CI, 2.4-3.6 months) (p=0.099). Serum levels of CA19.9 and CEA were significantly higher in female patients compared to male patients (p=0.037, p=0.05). Tumors of patients with response to FOLFIRINOX showed a higher expression level of p53 and Ki67 as well as higher serum levels of CA19.9 compared to non-responders, which was statistically not significant. Our study indicates that female gender is a positive predictor for therapy response to FOLFIRINOX in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Female gender in turn was associated with increased levels of tumor markers CEA and CA19.9 and patients with higher serum levels of CA19.9 were more responsive to FOLFIRINOX.International Journal of Oncology 11/2013; 44(1). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.2176 · 3.03 Impact Factor