Fabric analysis by ambient mass spectrometry for explosives and drugs.
ABSTRACT Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in-situ, direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of explosives and drugs from a variety of fabrics, including cotton, silk, denim, polyester, rayon, spandex, leather and their blends. The compounds analyzed were explosives: trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and the drugs of abuse: heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Limits of detection are in the picogram range. DESI analyses were performed without sample preparation and carried out in the presence of common interfering chemical matrices, such as insect repellant, urine, and topical lotions. Spatial and depth profiling was investigated to examine the depth of penetration and lateral resolution. DESI was also used to examine cotton transfer swabs used for travel security sample collection in the screening process. High throughput quantitative analysis of fabric surfaces for targeted analytes is also reported.
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ABSTRACT: Urine samples obtained from drug abusers were screened for drugs of abuse and their metabolites using DESI-MS and the results obtained were compared to results obtained from GC-MS experiments. The detected analyte classes included amphetamines, opiates, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines. The compounds detected were codeine, morphine, oxymorphone, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, alprazolam, temazepam, oxazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam (nordiazepam) and hydroxytemazepam. Identities of all the analytes were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry, matching MS/MS spectra with authentic standard compounds. The concentrations of the analytes in the samples were obtained from semi-quantitative GC-MS studies and were in the range of 270-22,000 ng mL(-1). The analytes could be detected by DESI even after a hundred-fold dilution indicating that the sensitivity of DESI was more than adequate for this study. Selectivity in the DESI-MS measurements for different kinds of analytes could be increased further by optimizing the spray solvent composition: the use of an entirely aqueous solvent enhanced the signal of polar analytes, such as the benzodiazepines, whereas the use of a spray solvent with a high organic content increased the signal of less polar analytes, such as codeine and morphine.The Analyst 10/2007; 132(9):868-75. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), an ambient mass spectrometry technique, is used for trace detection of the explosives trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and their plastic compositions (Composition C-4, Semtex-H, Detasheet) directly from a wide variety of surfaces (metal, plastic, paper, polymer) without sample preparation or pretreatment. Analysis of the explosives is performed under ambient conditions from virtually any surface in very short times (<5 s) including confirmatory tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments, while retaining the sensitivity and specificity that mass spectrometry offers. Increased selectivity is obtained both by MS/MS and by performing additional experiments in which additives are included in the spray solvent. These reactive DESI experiments (reactions accompanying desorption) produce such ions as the chloride and trifluoroacetate adducts of RDX and HMX or the Meisenheimer complex of TNT. Desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, a variant of DESI that uses gas-phase ions generated by atmospheric pressure corona discharges of toluene or other organic compounds, provides evidence for a heterogeneous-phase (gaseous ion/absorbed analyte) charge-transfer mechanism of DESI ionization in the case of explosives. Plastic explosives on surfaces were analyzed directly as fingerprints, without sample preparation, to test DESI as a possible method for in situ detection of explosives-contaminated surfaces. DESI also allowed detection of explosives in complex matrixes, including lubricants, household cleaners, vinegar, and diesel fuel. Absolute limits of detection for the neat explosives were subnanogram in all cases and subpicogram in the case of TNT. The DESI response was linear over 3 orders of magnitude for TNT. Quantification of RDX on paper gave a precision (RSD) of 2.3%. Pure water could be used as the spray solution for DESI, and it showed ionization efficiencies for RDX in the negative ion mode similar to that given by methanol/water. DESI represents a simple and rapid way to detect explosives in situ with high sensitivity and specificity and is especially useful when they are present in complex mixtures or in trace amounts on ordinary environmental surfaces.Analytical Chemistry 12/2005; 77(21):6755-64. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) allows mass spectrometry to be used for on-line high-throughput monitoring of pharmaceutical samples in the ambient environment, without prior sample preparation. Positive and negative ion DESI are used to characterize the active ingredients in pharmaceutical samples formulated as tablets, ointments, and liquids. Compounds of a wide variety of chemical types are detected in these complex matrices. The effects on analytical performance of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, solvent infusion rate, and solvent composition, are evaluated and optimized. In addition to experiments in which a simple solvent is sprayed onto the solid analyte samples, reactive desorption is performed by adding reagents to the solvent spray to generate particularly stable or characteristic ions with the analytes of interest. A variable-speed moving belt was built for high-throughput sampling and used to provide rapid qualitative and semiquantitative information on drug constituents in tablets. Sampling rates as high as 3 samples/s are achieved in the ambient environment. Relative standard deviations of the relative ion abundances for major components in the mass spectra are in the range of 2-8%. Impurities and components present at levels as low as approximately 0.1% are identified and carryover effects are minimized in high-throughput on-line analysis of pharmaceutical samples.Analytical Chemistry 12/2005; 77(21):6915-27. · 5.70 Impact Factor