Fabric analysis by ambient mass spectrometry for explosives and drugs.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
The Analyst (Impact Factor: 3.91). 12/2008; 133(11):1532-40. DOI: 10.1039/b807934j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in-situ, direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of explosives and drugs from a variety of fabrics, including cotton, silk, denim, polyester, rayon, spandex, leather and their blends. The compounds analyzed were explosives: trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and the drugs of abuse: heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Limits of detection are in the picogram range. DESI analyses were performed without sample preparation and carried out in the presence of common interfering chemical matrices, such as insect repellant, urine, and topical lotions. Spatial and depth profiling was investigated to examine the depth of penetration and lateral resolution. DESI was also used to examine cotton transfer swabs used for travel security sample collection in the screening process. High throughput quantitative analysis of fabric surfaces for targeted analytes is also reported.

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    ABSTRACT: FEATURE In spite of, numerous books, which have been devoted to “MALDI mass spectrometry”, it is particularly important to take into account the fact, that the content has involved physical background, instrumentation, and fundamentals of MALDI ionization/desorption process/s. There is a clear trend to present applicability of MALDI method to (bio)macromolecular screening, assay of living systems and imaging of whole organs and bodies, having outstanding contribution to clinical diagnostics and medicine. This book is, thus, first contribution, dedicated to MALDI mass spectrometry for analysis of environmental samples, containing analytes with low molecular weights. 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Many instrumental elaborations and exponential grown practical implementations have resulted in reviewing of the physical background, instrumentation, and applications to (bio)macromolecules in numerous books, textbooks, monographs and review articles. We have to challenge in this book, therefore, to highlight the outstanding contributions and prospectives of MALDI–MS as a method for analysis of analytes, having low molecular weights. Our book has been devoted to environmental analysis, involving organic and metal–organic pollutants and metallomics of inorganic hazardous air, surface and groundwater, wastewater, soils, sediments and manure pollutants, taking into account that soil proteomics has general connotation in (bio)macromolecular analysis. The content has extended to application to food, criminal and nuclear forensic analysis, thus aiming to inspirit large interdisciplinary interest. Therefore, it was written to serve as a practical guide with high–quality applied research character, to number of MSc educational programmes such as 'Analytical Chemistry', 'Ecological chemistry', 'Geochemistry', 'Environmental Chemistry'; PhD educational programmes in chemistry, ecology, toxicology, agricultural, food sciences and/or earth sciences; MSc programmes in "Physical methods in the forensic chemical analysis", programmes in "Forensic research" and/or "Nuclear Forensics". TABLE OF CONTENT Preface 1 About the contributors Acknowledgement Chapter 1 Critical overview of hybrid mass spectrometric methods for environmental analysis 11 1.1. Soft–ionization mass spectrometric methods in environmental analysis 16 1.2. Hard–ionization mass spectrometric methods in environmental analysis 29 References 32 Chapter 2 Background of the maldi–ms methods 41 2.1. Essence of the ionization/desorption mechanism – ir– and uv–maldi methods 44 2.2. Mass spectrometric maldi–tof method 59 2.3. Mass spectrometric maldi–Orbitrap method 63 References 70 Chapter 3 Sample preparation techniques for maldi mass spectrometry 77 3.1. Solid–state maldi–ms matrixes 79 3.1.1. Physical and chemical properties 79 Cationization of the matrix components 80 Sublimation 80 Protonation/deprotonation and coordination ability with the alkali metal ions 82 Absorption and photoexcitation properties of matrix molecules 83 3.1.2. Chemical composition of maldi–ms matrixes 87 Organic crystals of neutral molecules and molecular co–crystals 87 Crystal of organic salts 89 3.2. Liquid matrixes 93 3.3. Sample preparation techniques for solid–state analysis 93 3.3.1. Dried droplet technique 93 3.3.2. Crushed crystal approach 103 3.3.3. Fast evaporation 103 3.3.4. Overlayer and sandwich method 103 3.3.5. Spin–coating approach 103 3.3.6. Electrospray approach 104 3.3.7. 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