Article

Alpha-tocopherol succinate-mobilized progenitors improve intestinal integrity after whole body irradiation

International Journal of Radiation Biology (Impact Factor: 1.84). 12/2012; 89(5). DOI: 10.3109/09553002.2013.762137
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to elucidate the action of α-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating radiation-induced injuries. Material and methods: CD2F1 mice were exposed to a high dose of radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Intestinal and splenic tissues were harvested after irradiation and cells of those tissues were analyzed for markers of apoptosis and mitosis. Bacterial translocation from gut to heart, spleen, and liver in TS-treated and irradiated mice was evaluated by bacterial culture. Results: We observed that the infusion of PBMC from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice significantly inhibited apoptosis, increased cell proliferation in the analyzed tissues of recipient mice, and inhibited bacterial translocation to various organs compared to mice receiving cells from vehicle-mobilized cells. This study further supports our contention that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMC acts as a bridging therapy by inhibiting radiation-induced apoptosis, enhancing cell proliferation, and inhibiting bacterial translocation in irradiated mice. Conclusions: We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach that involves the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation injury might be applicable to humans as well.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Vijay K Singh, Mar 18, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the potential devastating health consequences of intense total-body irradiation, and the decades of research, there still remains a dearth of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for emergency, radiological/nuclear contingencies that have been fully approved and sanctioned for use by the US FDA. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant, effective in scavenging free radicals generated by radiation exposure. Vitamin E analogs, collectively known as tocols, have been subject to active investigation for a long time as radioprotectors in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in the context of possible radiation accidents or terrorism scenarios. Eight major isoforms comprise the tocol group: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A number of these agents and their derivatives are being investigated actively as radiation countermeasures using animal models, and several appear promising. Although the tocols are well recognized as potent antioxidants and are generally thought to mediate radioprotection through 'free radical quenching', recent studies have suggested several alternative mechanisms: most notably, an 'indirect effect' of tocols in eliciting specific species of radioprotective growth factors/cytokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The radioprotective efficacy of at least two tocols has been abrogated using a neutralizing antibody of G-CSF. Based on encouraging results of radioprotective efficacy, laboratory testing of γ-tocotrienol has moved from a small rodent model to a large nonhuman primate model for preclinical evaluation. In this brief review we identify and discuss selected tocols and their derivatives currently under development as radiation countermeasures, and attempt to describe in some detail their in vivo efficacy.
    Journal of Radiation Research 05/2013; 54(6). DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrt048 · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of alpha-tocopherol succinate (TS)- and AMD3100-mobilized progenitors in mitigating combined injury associated with acute radiation exposure in combination with secondary physical wounding. CD2F1 mice were exposed to high doses of cobalt-60 gamma-radiation and then transfused intravenously with 5 million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TS- and AMD3100-injected mice after irradiation. Within 1 h after irradiation, mice were exposed to secondary wounding. Mice were observed for 30 d after irradiation and cytokine analysis was conducted by multiplex Luminex assay at various time-points after irradiation and wounding. Our results initially demonstrated that transfusion of TS-mobilized progenitors from normal mice enhanced survival of acutely irradiated mice exposed 24 h prior to transfusion to supralethal doses (11.5-12.5 Gy) of (60)Co gamma-radiation. Subsequently, comparable transfusions of TS-mobilized progenitors were shown to significantly mitigate severe combined injuries in acutely irradiated mice. TS administered 24 h before irradiation was able to protect mice against combined injury as well. Cytokine results demonstrated that wounding modulates irradiation-induced cytokines. This study further supports the conclusion that the infusion of TS-mobilized progenitor-containing PBMCs acts as a bridging therapy in radiation-combined-injury mice. We suggest that this novel bridging therapeutic approach involving the infusion of TS-mobilized hematopoietic progenitors following acute radiation exposure or combined injury might be applicable to humans.
    Journal of Radiation Research 06/2013; 55(1). DOI:10.1093/jrr/rrt088 · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.
    Frontiers in Oncology 01/2014; 4:381. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00381
Show more