Genome-wide association study identified novel genetic variant on SLC45A3 gene associated with serum levels prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Chinese population.

Center for Cancer Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 4.52). 12/2012; DOI: 10.1007/s00439-012-1254-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a commonly used cancer biomarker for prostate cancer, and is often included as part of routine physical examinations in China. Serum levels of PSA may be influenced by genetic factors as well as other factors. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a European population successfully identified six genetic loci that were significantly associated with PSA level. In this study, we aimed to identify common genetic variants that are associated with serum level of PSA in a Chinese population. We also evaluated the effects of those variants by creating personalized PSA cutoff values. A two-stage GWAS of PSA level was performed among men age 20-69 years and self-reported cancer-free participants that underwent routine physical examinations at several hospitals in Guangxi Province, China. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with PSA levels in the first stage of sample (N = 1,999) were confirmed in the second stage of sample (N = 1,496). Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the independent contribution of confirmed SNPs and known covariates, such as age, to the level of PSA. SNPs in three regions were significantly associated with levels of PSA in this two-stage GWAS, and had combined P values between 4.62 × 10(-17) and 6.45 × 10(-37). The three regions are located on 1q32.1 at SLC45A3, 10q11.23 at MSMB, and 19q13.33 at KLK3. The region 1q32.1 at SLC45A3 was identified as a novel locus. Genetic variants contributed significantly more to the variance of PSA level than known covariates such as age. Personalized cutoff values of serum PSA, calculated based on the inheritance of these associated SNPs, differ considerably among individuals. Identification of these genetic markers provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms of PSA. Taking individual variation into account, these genetic variants may improve the performance of PSA to predict prostate cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: The wide application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has contributed to the early diagnosis and improved management of prostate cancer (PCa). Accumulating evidence has suggested the involvement of genetic components in regulating serum PSA levels, and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, the GWASs' results have the limited power to identify the causal variants and pathways. After the quality control filters, a total of 330,540 genotyped SNPs from one GWAS with 657 PCa-free Caucasian males were included for the identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways (ICSNPathway) analysis. In addition, the genotype-phenotype association analysis has been conducted with the data from HapMap database. Overall, a total of four SNPs in three genes and six pathways were identified by ICSNPathway analysis, which in total provided three hypothetical mechanisms. First, CYP26B1 rs2241057 polymorphism (nonsynonymous coding) which leads to a Leu-to-Ser amino acid shift at position 264, was implicated in the pathways including meiosis, proximal/distal pattern formation, and M phase of meiotic cell cycle. Second, CLIC5 rs3734207 and rs11752816 polymorphisms (regulatory region) to the 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding pathway through regulating expression levels of CLIC5 mRNA. Third, rs4819522 polymorphism (nonsynonymous coding) leads to a Thr-to-Met transition at position 350 of TBX1 and involves in the pathways about gland and endocrine system development. In summary, our results demonstrated four candidate SNPs in three genes (CYP26B1 rs2241057, CISD1 rs2251039, rs2590370, and TBX1 rs4819522 polymorphisms), which were involved in six potential pathways to influence serum PSA levels.
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