Continuity of Care, Medication Adherence, and Health Care Outcomes Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Analysis

*Institute of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health †Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University ‡Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Medical care (Impact Factor: 3.23). 12/2012; 51(3). DOI: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31827da5b9
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND:: The effects of continuity of care (COC) on health care outcomes are well established. However, the mechanism of this association is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between COC and medication adherence, as well as to investigate the mediating effect of medication adherence on the association between COC and health care outcomes, in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:: This study utilized a longitudinal design and included a 7-year follow-up period from 2002 to 2009 under a universal health insurance program in Taiwan. Patients aged 18 years or older who were first diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2002 were included in the study. Random intercept models were conducted to assess the temporal relationship between COC, medication adherence, and health care outcomes. RESULTS:: Patients with high or intermediate COC scores were more likely to be adherent to medications than those with low COC scores [odds ratio (OR), 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.15-3.60 and OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.74-1.94, respectively]. In addition, the association between COC and health care outcomes was partly mediated by better medication adherence in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:: Improving the COC for patients with type 2 diabetes may result in higher medication adherence and better health care outcomes.

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    • "Because lack of adherence among diabetes patients is associated with costly hospitalizations, serious adverse clinical events, and death (Sokol et al., 2005; Tjia et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2013; Egede et al., 2013), identifying measurable indicators of medication adherence and management of medications over time was an important step in evaluating the work of the clinical team to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Poor adherence to prescribed medicines is associated with increased rates of poor outcomes, including hospitalization, serious adverse events, and death, and is also associated with increased healthcare costs. However, current approaches to evaluation of medication adherence using real-world electronic health records (EHRs) or claims data may miss critical opportunities for data capture and fall short in modeling and representing the full complexity of the healthcare environment. We sought to explore a framework for understanding and improving data capture for medication adherence in a population-based intervention in four U.S. counties. Approach: We posited that application of a data model and a process matrix when designing data collection for medication adherence would improve identification of variables and data accessibility, and could support future research on medication-taking behaviors. We then constructed a use case in which data related to medication adherence would be leveraged to support improved healthcare quality, clinical outcomes, and efficiency of healthcare delivery in a population-based intervention for persons with diabetes. Because EHRs in use at participating sites were deemed incapable of supplying the needed data, we applied a taxonomic approach to identify and define variables of interest. We then applied a process matrix methodology, in which we identified key research goals and chose optimal data domains and their respective data elements, to instantiate the resulting data model. Conclusions: Combining a taxonomic approach with a process matrix methodology may afford significant benefits when designing data collection for clinical and population-based research in the arena of medication adherence. Such an approach can effectively depict complex real-world concepts and domains by “mapping” the relationships between disparate contributors to medication adherence and describing their relative contributions to the shared goals of improved healthcare quality, outcomes, and cost.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 11/2013; 4:139. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00139 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Improving continuity of care (COC) for patients with type 2 diabetes through better patient–physician relationships and greater information sharing has also been shown to be associated with increased adherence and improved outcomes [87]. For patients with a high versus a low score for COC, the OR for adherence (defined from MPR ≥80%) was 3.37 (95% CI 3.15–3.60). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence to therapy is defined as the extent to which a person's behavior in taking medication, following a diet, and/or executing lifestyle changes, corresponds with agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider. Patients presenting with type 2 diabetes mellitus are initially encouraged to maintain a healthy diet and exercise regimen, followed by early medication that generally includes one or more oral hypoglycemic agents and later may include an injectable treatment. To prevent the complications associated with type 2 diabetes, therapy frequently also includes medications for control of blood pressure, dyslipidemia and other disorders, since patients often have more than three or four chronic conditions. Despite the benefits of therapy, studies have indicated that recommended glycemic goals are achieved by less than 50% of patients, which may be associated with decreased adherence to therapies. As a result, hyperglycemia and long-term complications increase morbidity and premature mortality, and lead to increased costs to health services. Reasons for nonadherence are multifactorial and difficult to identify. They include age, information, perception and duration of disease, complexity of dosing regimen, polytherapy, psychological factors, safety, tolerability and cost. Various measures to increase patient satisfaction and increase adherence in type 2 diabetes have been investigated. These include reducing the complexity of therapy by fixed-dose combination pills and less frequent dosing regimens, using medications that are associated with fewer adverse events (hypoglycemia or weight gain), educational initiatives with improved patient-healthcare provider communication, reminder systems and social support to help reduce costs. In the current narrative review, factors that influence adherence to different therapies for type 2 diabetes are discussed, along with outcomes of poor adherence, the economic impact of nonadherence, and strategies aimed at improving adherence.
    08/2013; 4(2). DOI:10.1007/s13300-013-0034-y
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    ABSTRACT: Medication adherence is the most important factor in the proper management of patients with diabetes. Considering the importance of informational continuity in a changing world, it could be meaningful to improve institution-level continuity of care and its positive relationship with medication adherence. We examined the relationship between institution-level continuity of ambulatory care and medication adherence in adult patients with type 2 diabetes receiving a new hypoglycemic prescription and sought to determine whether an improvement in medication adherence could be achieved through an ongoing relationship between the patient and the medical care institution. This was a longitudinal study of 23,034 patients aged 20 years and older enrolled in the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) program and first diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2004. The patients were followed-up for 4 years using claims data to measure continuity of ambulatory care and adherence to oral antihyperglycemic medications. The Continuity of Care Index (COCI) was calculated on the institution level as a measure of continuity and the medication possession ratio (MPR) was used as a measure of adherence. After adjusting for confounding variables, the odds of being medication adherent (MPR≥0.8) increased as the COCI increased [0.2≤COCI<0.4, odds ratio (OR)=2.20; 0.4≤COCI<0.6, OR=3.46; 0.6≤COCI<0.8, OR=4.76; 0.8≤COCI<1.0, OR=4.43; COCI=1.0, OR=7.24]. Institution-level continuity of ambulatory care was positively associated with medication adherence, which suggested that a high concentration of ambulatory care visits, whether it's a physician or an institution, could facilitate delivery of proper medical services to and increases medication adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes, and that institution-level continuity of ambulatory care could be an effective index for assessing the quality of chronic care in the fragmented health care delivery system as in Korea.
    Medical care 05/2014; 52(5):446-53. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000110 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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