Multiple myeloma : recent progress in diagnosis and treatment.
ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) has been the most intractable hematological disease for many years. Recently, basic and clinical research has advanced remarkably and a new therapeutic strategy has been established. The introduction of high-dose melphalan with autologous stem-cell transplantation and the availability of molecular-targeted novel agents such as immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors have dramatically changed the treatment strategies for MM. Achievement of a high response rate resulted in the extension of overall survival, but further research and the development of more multimodality therapeutic approaches is warranted to cure this disease. [J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(3) : 149-159, 2012].
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ABSTRACT: Background. In the last few years, it has been widely reported that proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines are important for the development and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Objectives. To further validate and acquire more insight into this view we decided to check whether plasma levels of certain cytokines and their soluble receptors differ between MM patients and healthy subjects. Patients and Methods. The study was conducted in 76 MM patients aged 22 to 77 years (60±10 years) and 35 healthy controls aged 20 to 63 years (33±10 years). Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), b-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), as well as soluble receptors for IL-6 (sIL-6R) and VEGF (sVEGF-R2) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Significantly higher plasma levels of IL-6 (13.65±42.61 vs. 1.04±1.12 pg/ml, p=0.006), HGF (2174±2714 vs. 648±130 pg/ml, p<0.001), b-FGF (7.92±10.78 vs. 2.54±5.38 pg/ml, p<0.001) and sIL-6R (37.1±14.2 vs. 25.3±6.4 ng/ml, p=0.003) were observed in MM patients vs. healthy controls, respectively. Plasma sVEGF-R2 was significantly lower in MM patients than in controls (7518±2119 vs. 8725±1281 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.001). We observed an inverse correlation between length of treatment and the level of sIL-6R, and TGF-β1 in plasma. Conclusions. Plasma levels of HGF, b-FGF, IL-6 and sIL-6R in MM patients were higher when compared to the control group. Antineoplastic therapy leads to a time-dependent decrease in plasma levels of sIL-6R, and TGF-β1 in MM patients. Blood plasma level of HGF is an optimal measure to differentiate patients in whom disease is progressing versus patients who respond to therapy.Journal of Cancer 06/2014; 5(7). DOI:10.7150/jca.9266 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: p53 abnormalities are regarded as an independent prognostic marker in multiple myeloma. Patients harbouring this genetic anomaly are commonly resistant to standard therapy. Thus, various p53 reactivating agents have been developed in order to restore its tumour suppressive abilities. Small molecular compounds, especially, have gained popularity in its efficacy against myeloma cells. For instance, promising preclinical results have steered both nutlin-3 and PRIMA-1 into phase I/II clinical trials. This review summarizes different modes of p53 inactivation in myeloma and highlights the current p53-based therapies that are being utilized in the clinic. Finally, we discuss the potential and promise that the novel small molecules possess for clinical application in improving the treatment outcome of myeloma.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:717919. DOI:10.1155/2014/717919 · 2.71 Impact Factor