Applying social marketing principles to understand the effects of the radio diaries program in reducing HIV/AIDS stigma in Malawi.
ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent to which health campaigns can play a constructive role in reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. The Malawi Radio Diaries is a program in which HIV-positive men and women openly discuss day-to-day events in their lives with the goal of reducing stigma in the population. Adopting a social marketing perspective, we analyze the various components of the Radio Diaries program in terms of three of the "Four P's": product (stigma reduction), place (radio), and promotion (the program itself). We first investigated the important dimensions of stigma and then developed a model to test the demographic and psychosocial correlates of these dimensions. A midterm household survey was then used to determine the relationship between exposure to the Radio Diaries program and stigma. In multivariate analyses, lower education and knowledge were associated with stronger beliefs that persons living with HIV should be isolated from others. Exposure to the Radio Diaries program did not have a main-effect on stigma, but there was a significant interaction between exposure and efficacy to reduce number of partners such that there was little difference in stigma by exposure level for those with low efficacy, but a significant difference by exposure level for those with high efficacy. Findings are discussed in terms of social marketing principles.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. The purpose was to synthesize evaluations of HIV interventions with at least one media component (including media campaigns and social marketing) to assess the conditions under which condom use improved. Methods. A literature search produced 80 studies that met the criteria for inclusion, including use of media, assessments before and after the intervention, and sufficient statistical information to calculate an effect size for at least one outcome. Results. Overall, media interventions successfully promoted condom use, particularly in nations with a low human development index. Interventions that included both mass media and interpersonal channels (e.g., counseling, peer outreach, small groups) were much more successful (d+=0.45, 95% CI=0.42, 0.48) than campaigns using only mass media (d+=0.27, 95% CI=0.24, 0.31),or interpersonal interventions with a small media component (e.g. video, brochure, poster(d+=0.29, 95% CI=0.27, 0.32). All were equally effect, however, when the samples used in the evaluation were sexually active. Interventions worked better when combined with condom distribution and abstinence was not an intervention goal. Interventions were not successful in reducing the number of sexual partners. Conclusions. Media interventions should be an important part of HIV prevention strategies, given their effectiveness, reach, and ability to reduce global health disparities.137st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2009; 11/2009
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ABSTRACT: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has one of the largest concentrations of people who have experienced sexual violence in the world. In this article, we use qualitative data to contrast community reactions toward survivors (descriptive norms) with perceptions about what would constitute justice for survivors (prescribed norms). There are noticeable disparities between descriptive norms and prescribed norms regarding community reactions toward survivors of sexual violence. The image of a survivor of sexual violence that emerged from the data is that of a person who should be pitied and who is sick, suffering, often abandoned and neglected, exposed to discrimination, and emotionally disturbed. In contrast to these negative perceptions, community members saw justice for survivors as including compassion, empathy, egalitarian treatment, respect, and protection from taunting and labelling. We drew on the theory of pluralistic ignorance to explain this disparity. The programmatic implications of the findings are discussed.Journal of Community Psychology 03/2015; 43(2). DOI:10.1002/jcop.21672 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The Emory Jane Fonda Center implemented the Start Strong Atlanta social marketing campaign, “Keep It Strong ATL”, in 2007 to promote the development of healthy adolescent relationships and to foster the prevention of adolescent dating abuse among 11-14 year olds. Objective: A formative evaluation was conducted to understand whether messages directed at the target audience were relevant to the program’s relationship promotion and violence prevention goals, and whether the “Web 2.0” social media channels of communication (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Tumblr, and Pinterest) were reaching the intended audience. Methods: Mixed methodologies included qualitative interviews and a key informant focus group, a cross-sectional survey, and web analytics. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparative methodology informed by grounded theory. Descriptive statistics were generated from survey data, and web analytics provided user information and traffic patterns. Results: Results indicated that the Keep It Strong ATL social marketing campaign was a valuable community resource that had potential for broader scope and greater reach. The evaluation team learned the importance of reaching adolescents through Web 2.0 platforms, and the need for message dissemination via peers. Survey results indicated that Facebook (ranked 6.5 out of 8) was the highest rated social media outlet overall, and exhibited greatest appeal and most frequent visits, yet analytics revealed that only 3.5% of “likes” were from the target audience. These results indicate that the social media campaign is reaching predominantly women (76.5% of viewership) who are outside of the target age range of 11-14 years. Conclusions: While the social media campaign was successfully launched, the findings indicate the need for a more focused selection of communication channels, timing of media updates to maximize visibility, balancing message tone and delivery, and incorporating differentiated messaging for the target audiences. Collaboration with parents and community partners is also emphasized in order to expand the campaign’s reach and create more channels to disseminate relationship promotion and dating violence prevention messaging to the intended audience.Journal of Medical Internet Research 11/2014; 3(4):e64. DOI:10.2196/resprot.3546 · 4.67 Impact Factor