Association Between Sustained Virological Response and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis
ABSTRACT Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcomes include liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death.
To assess the association between sustained virological response (SVR) and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced hepatic fibrosis.
An international, multicenter, long-term follow-up study from 5 large tertiary care hospitals in Europe and Canada of 530 patients with chronic HCV infection who started an interferon-based treatment regimen between 1990 and 2003, following histological proof of advanced hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis (Ishak score 4-6). Complete follow-up ranged between January 2010 and October 2011.
All-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were liver failure, HCC, and liver-related mortality or liver transplantation.
The 530 study patients were followed up for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 8.4 (6.4-11.4) years. The baseline median (IQR) age was 48 (42-56) years and 369 patients (70%) were men. The Ishak fibrosis score was 4 in 143 patients (27%), 5 in 101 patients (19%), and 6 in 286 patients (54%). There were 192 patients (36%) who achieved SVR; 13 patients with SVR and 100 without SVR died (10-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate, 8.9% [95% CI, 3.3%-14.5%] with SVR and 26.0% [95% CI, 20.2%-28.4%] without SVR; P < .001). In time-dependent multivariate Cox regression analysis, SVR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14-0.49; P < .001) and reduced risk of liver-related mortality or transplantation (HR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.19; P < .001), the latter occurring in 3 patients with SVR and 103 without SVR. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of liver-related mortality or transplantation was 1.9% (95% CI, 0.0%-4.1%) with SVR and 27.4% (95% CI, 22.0%-32.8%) without SVR (P < .001). There were 7 patients with SVR and 76 without SVR who developed HCC (10-year cumulative incidence rate, 5.1%; 95% CI, 1.3%-8.9%; vs 21.8%; 95% CI, 16.6%-27.0%; P < .001), and 4 patients with SVR and 111 without SVR experienced liver failure (10-year cumulative incidence rate, 2.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-4.5%; vs 29.9%; 95% CI, 24.3%-35.5%; P < .001).
Among patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced hepatic fibrosis, sustained virological response to interferon-based treatment was associated with lower all-cause mortality.
SourceAvailable from: Angela M Mitchell[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to persistence in the majority of cases despite triggering complex innate immune responses within the liver. Although hepatocytes are the preferred site for HCV replication, nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) can also contribute to antiviral immunity. Recent innovations involving single-genome amplification (SGA), direct amplicon sequencing, and phylogenetic inference have identified full-length transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Here, we tested the effect of HCV T/F viral RNA (vRNA) on innate immune signaling within hepatocytes and NPCs, including the HepG2 and Huh 7.5.1 cell lines, a human liver endothelial cell line (TMNK-1), a plasmacytoid dendritic cell line (GEN2.2), and a monocytic cell line (THP-1). Transfection with hepatitis C T/F vRNA induced robust transcriptional upregulation of type I and III interferons (IFNs) within HepG2 and TMNK-1 cells. Both the THP-1 and GEN2.2 lines demonstrated higher type I and III IFN transcription with genotype 3a compared to genotype 1a or 1b. Supernatants from HCV T/F vRNA-transfected TMNK-1 cells demonstrated superior viral control. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) transfected with genotype 3a induced canonical pathways that included chemokine and IFN genes, as well as overrepresentation of RIG-I (DDX58), STAT1, and a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) network. Full-length molecular clones of HCV induce broad IFN responses within hepatocytes and NPCs, highlighting that signals imparted by the various cell types within the liver may lead to divergent outcomes of infection. In particular, the finding that HCV genotypes differentially induce antiviral responses in NPCs and PHH might account for relevant clinical-epidemiological observations (higher clearance but greater necroinflammation in persistence with genotype 3).mBio 02/2015; 6(2):e02510-14. DOI:10.1128/mBio.02510-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and improve levels of CVD biomarkers produced outside the liver (nonhepatic biomarkers). Stored serum or plasma from before and 24 weeks after end of HCV treatment (EOT) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected subjects who received up to 72 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin, 27 with and 27 without sustained virologic response (SVR) matched by race, ethnicity and sex, were tested for nonhepatic (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble P-selectin [sP-selectin], interleukin [IL]-6, d-dimer, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2]) and hepatic (cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) CVD and macrophage activation markers (soluble CD163 [sCD163] and soluble CD14). Changes in biomarkers and their association with SVR were examined by t tests or Wilcoxon tests and regression models. Of the 54 subjects, 30 were white, 24 were black, and 44 were male. Pretreatment levels of nonhepatic biomarkers were high: sICAM-1 overall median, 439.2 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 365.6-592.8]; sP-selectin, 146.7 ng/mL (IQR, 94.1-209.9), and IL-6, 2.32 pg/mL (IQR, 1.61-3.49). Thirty-seven of 52 (71%) subjects had Lp-PLA2 >235 ng/mL. Sustained virologic response was associated with decrease in sICAM-1 (P = .033) and sCD163 (P = .042); this result was attenuated after controlling for changes in the alanine aminotransferase level. At 24 weeks after EOT, 17 (63%) SVRs had Lp-PLA2 >235 ng/mL vs 25 (93%) non-SVRs (P = .021). Hepatitis C virus clearance may reduce hepatic and, subsequently, systemic inflammation and CVD risk in HIV/HCV coinfection.12/2014; 1(3):ofu104. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu104
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In light of new treatment regimens for hepatitis C, Amitabh Suthar and Anthony Harries outline a wider public health approach for tackling the disease.PLoS Medicine 03/2015; 12(3):e1001795. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001795 · 14.00 Impact Factor