BACKGROUND: Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) are living longer and presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) in larger numbers. A greater understanding of their diagnoses and appropriate management strategies can improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the ED diagnoses, management, and dispositions of pediatric CCHD patients who present with fever. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed pediatric ED patients age 18 years or younger with a previous diagnosis of CCHD who presented with a fever from January 2000 to December 2005. RESULTS: Of 809 total ED encounters, 248 (30.6%) were eligible for inclusion. Of those meeting inclusion criteria, 59 (23.8%) required supplemental oxygen and 67 (27%) received intravenous fluid. ED diagnoses were febrile illness in 120 (48.4%), pneumonia in 35 (14.1%), upper respiratory infection in 19 (7.7%), viral syndrome in 17 (6.9%), gastroenteritis in 17 (6.9%), otitis media in 10 (4.0%), bronchiolitis in 5 (2.0%), pharyngitis in 3 (1.2%), croup in 3 (1.2%), bronchitis in 3 (1.2%), urinary tract infection in 3 (1.2%), mononucleosis in 2 (0.8%), pericarditis in 2 (0.8%), influenza in 1 (0.4%), cellulitis in 1 (0.4%), bacteremia in 1 (0.4%), and potential endocarditis in 1 (0.4%). In terms of patient disposition, 53.2% were discharged, 44.4% were floor admissions, and 2.4% were intensive care unit admissions. CONCLUSIONS: A cardiac cause of fever in CCHD patients is rare. Because of limited cardiopulmonary reserve, they might require supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluids, and hospital admission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infective endocarditis is a rare disease in the general pediatric population. Nonetheless, children with congenital heart disease have a substantial lifetime risk for development of endocarditis, and recent advances in the management of these children should increase the number of patients who survive infancy and early childhood. During the 30-year period from 1950 through 1979, 50 cases of endocarditis in children were diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic. Of these 50 patients, 37 had congenital heart disease, and 8 were diagnosed as having endocarditis within 3 months after having undergone a cardiac surgical procedure. Nineteen patients died of the disease or its complications. The most common organism isolated at Staphylococcus aureus (19 patients), followed by viridans streptococci (14 patients). Children younger than 10 years of age experienced a particularly high mortality, as did patients of all ages with S. aureus infection. Any unexplained fever in a child with congenital heart disease deserves close investigation; if endocarditis is suspected, early empiric antibiotic therapy is indicated after appropriate culture specimens have been obtained. Moreover, localized bacterial infections in children at risk must be treated aggressively to prevent metastatic spread to the heart.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 03/1982; 57(2):86-94. · 6.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide information on disease attributable to respiratory syncytial viral lower respiratory tract infection (RSV LRI) and to quantify the morbidity associated with various risk factors.
Prospective cohort study.
Patients hospitalized with RSV LRIs at seven centers were eligible for study if they were younger than 2 years of age, or hospitalized patients of any age if they had underlying cardiac or pulmonary disease or immunosuppression.
Enrolled (n = 689) and eligible but not enrolled (n = 191) patients were similar in age, duration of illness and proportion with underlying illness, use of intensive care, and ventilation. Of the enrolled patients, 156 had underlying illness. The isolates from 353 patients were typeable: 102 isolates were subgroup A, 250 were subgroup B, and one isolated grouped with both antisera. The mean hospital stay attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was 7 days; 110 patients were admitted to intensive care units, 63 were supported by mechanical ventilation, and 6 patients died. Regression models were developed for the prediction of three outcomes: RSV-associated hospital duration, intensive care unit admission, and ventilation treatment. In addition to previously described risk factors for an increased morbidity, such as underlying illness, hypoxia, prematurity and young age, three other factors were found to be significantly associated with complicated hospitalization: aboriginal race (defined by maternal race), a history of apnea or respiratory arrest during the acute illness before hospitalization, and pulmonary consolidation as shown on the chest radiograph obtained at admission. The RSV subgroup, family income, and day care attendance were not significantly associated with these outcomes.
Hypoxia on admission, a history of apnea or respiratory arrest, and pulmonary consolidation should be considered in the management of children with RSV LRIs. Vaccine trials should target patients with underlying heart or lung disease or of aboriginal race.
Journal of Pediatrics 03/1995; 126(2):212-9. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(95)70547-3 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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