Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a variant of spindle cell melanoma typically found on chronically sun-damaged skin of older individuals. Early diagnosis can be challenging because it is often amelanotic and has a predominantly dermal component. DM can be difficult to diagnose not only clinically but also histologically, and can be mistaken for a variety of benign and malignant nonmelanocytic spindle cell tumors when viewed on prepared histopathology slides. Pathologists have observed that DMs can manifest significant variation with respect to the extent of intratumoral cellularity, fibrosis, and/or perineural invasion. Furthermore, some tumors present with a pure desmoplastic invasive component (>90%) while other tumors display mixed features of DM and nondesmoplastic melanoma. This has led to the separation of DM into 2 histologic subtypes, pure and mixed. With a focus on the distinction between pure and mixed DM, this review will detail what is currently known about the diagnostic features of DM, discuss risk and prognostic factors, and examine the current literature on disease progression and management.
"Melanoma, derived from melanocytes, is one of the most highly invasive and metastatic tumors . The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased dramatically in recent years . Melanoma can spread "silently" at an early stage without any symptoms of metastasis, which become one of the major obstacles for achieving successful clinical chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of melanoma . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously found that the low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) inhibited gastric and lung cancer cell growth. We suppose that exposure to LF-MF may modulate immune function so as to inhibit tumor. We here investigated whether LF-MF can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma and influence immune function.
The effect of MF on the proliferation, cell cycle and ultrastracture of B16-F10 in vitro was detected by cell counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Lung metastasis mice were prepared by injection of 2 x 105 B16-F10 melanoma cells into the tail vein in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were then exposed to an LF-MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 43 days. Survival rate, tumor markers and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured.
The growth of B16-F10 cells was inhibited after exposure to the LF-MF. The inhibition was related to induction of cell cycle arrest and decomposition of chromatins. Moreover, the LF-MF prolonged the mouse survival rate and inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 in melanoma metastasis mice model. Furthermore, the LF-MF modulated the immune response via regulation of immune cells and cytokine production. In addition, the number of Treg cells was decreased in mice with the LF-MF exposure, while the numbers of T cells as well as dendritic cells were significantly increased.
LF-MF inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved immune function of tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that the inhibition may be attributed to modulation of LF-MF on immune function and LF-MF may be a potential therapy for treatment of melanoma.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):582. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-582 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a concerning toxicity with BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma. While the two drugs shown to improve survival, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, have similar efficacy, the reported rates of cSCC are quite different. Drawing upon pre-clinical and clinical trial data, this article discusses the potential factors behind the different cSCC incidences reported with the two BRAF inhibitors, and provides a strategic approach to understand this issue further.Significance. While cSCCs themselves may not be a major clinical problem in the metastatic setting, they are of greater importance as BRAF inhibitors enter adjuvant treatment, particularly as they point to a wider issue of the oncogenic propensity of these drugs. Emerging reports of non-cutaneous malignancies propagated by BRAF inhibitors are of concern, especially as they are thought to be driven by the same process that leads to cSCC. The true relative prevalence of cSCCs with vemurafenib and dabrafenib may inform the relative risk of other non-cutaneous malignancies with these drugs, which should serve to influence clinical management and drug design. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanocytes are pigment producing cells which reside in the skin, eyes, ears, heart, and central nervous system meninges of mammals. Schwann cells are glial cells, which closely associate with peripheral nerves, myelinating and sheathing them. Melanocytes and Schwann cells both arise from the neural crest during development and some melanocytes arise directly from Schwann cell precursors lining developing spinal nerves. In this review, we explore the connections between melanocytes and Schwann cells in development and transformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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