Association Between Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Left Ventricular Dysfunction DCCT/EDIC Study (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications)
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: The goal of these studies was to determine the association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and indices of left ventricle (LV) structure and function in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of LV dysfunction in T1DM remains unclear, especially when the LV ejection fraction (EF) is preserved. Whether CAN is associated with LV dysfunction is unclear. METHODS: Indices of LV structure and function were obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). CAN was assessed by cardiovascular reflex testing (R-R response to paced breathing, Valsalva ratio, and blood pressure response to standing). Analyses were performed in 966 DCCT/EDIC participants with valid CMRI and CAN data (mean age 51 years, 52% men, mean diabetes duration 29 years, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.9%). RESULTS: Systolic function (EF, end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, stroke volumes) was not different in 371 subjects with CAN compared with 595 subjects without CAN. In multiple-adjusted analyses, participants with either abnormal R-R variation or a composite of abnormal R-R variation, abnormal Valsalva ratio, and postural blood pressure changes had significantly higher LV mass, mass-to-volume-ratio, and cardiac output compared with those with normal tests (p < 0.0001 for all). After further adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, subjects with abnormal R-R variation had higher LV mass and cardiac output compared with those with a normal R-R variation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with T1DM, CAN is associated with increased LV mass and concentric remodeling as assessed by CMRI independent of age, sex, and other factors. (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial [DCCT]; NCT00360815) (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications [EDIC]; NCT00360893).
SourceAvailable from: Akif Serhat Balcıoğlu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus with potentially life-threatening outcomes. CAN is caused by the impairment of the autonomic nerve fibers regulating heart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, cardiac electrophysiology and blood vessel constriction and dilatation. It causes a wide range of cardiac disorders, including resting tachycardia, arrhythmias, intraoperative cardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and infarction and increased rate of mortality after myocardial infarction. Etiological factors associated with autonomic neuropathy include insufficient glycemic control, a longer period since the onset of diabetes, increased age, female sex and greater body mass index. The most commonly used methods for the diagnosis of CAN are based upon the assessment of heart rate variability (the physiological variation in the time interval between heartbeats), as it is one of the first findings in both clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Clinical symptoms associated with CAN generally occur late in the disease process and include early fatigue and exhaustion during exercise, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, presyncope and syncope. Treatment is based on early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization of glycemic control and management of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical therapies, including aldose reductase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, prostoglandin analogs and alpha-lipoic acid, have been found to be effective in randomized controlled trials. The following article includes the epidemiology, clinical findings and cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis, and approaches to prevention and treatment of CAN.03/2015; 6(1):80-91. DOI:10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.80
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ABSTRACT: Patients with autonomic failure are characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, high blood pressure variability, blunted heart rate variability, and often have a "non-dipping" or "reverse dipping" pattern on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. These alterations may lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular changes, similar to the target organ damage found in hypertension. Often patients with autonomic failure are on treatment with anti-hypotensive drugs, which may worsen supine hypertension. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence for cardiac, vascular, renal, and cerebrovascular damage in patients with autonomic failure.Clinical Autonomic Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10286-015-0275-0 · 1.86 Impact Factor
12/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.145795