The crosstalk between spatial adhesion signals and temporal soluble signals is key in regulating cellular responses such as cell migration. Here we show that soluble growth factors (GFs) enhance integrin signaling through Akt phosphorylation of FAK at Ser695 and Thr700. PDGF treatment or overexpression of active Akt1 in fibroblasts increased autophosphorylation of FAK at Tyr397, an essential event for integrin turnover and cell migration. Phosphorylation-defective mutants of FAK (S695A and T700A) underwent autophosphorylation at Tyr397 and promoted cell migration in response to the integrin ligand fibronectin (FN), but importantly, not in response to PDGF. This study has unveiled a novel function of Akt as an "ignition kinase" of FAK in GF signaling and may shed light on the mechanism by which GFs regulate integrin signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex, multi-system disease whose primary site of inflammatory tissue damage is the joint. The increasing evidences indicate that activated RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a critical role in the development of pannus by migrating into cartilage and bone. Furthermore FLS and T cells can activate each other in vitro and in vivo, which is crucial for the progress of RA. Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) has been linked to peripheral T cell homeostatic proliferation and survival, which is very important for RA. Yet, the function of DCK in FLS is still unknown. Here, we present a story that DCK could regulate the migration and invasion of FLS through AKT pathway in RA patients. Moreover, DCK seems to be the upstream of AKT and FAK, and AKT inhibitor exerted the similar effect on FLS motility. In summary, our study characterized the new role of DCK in human primary FLS cells, and figured out the possible pathway DCK involved in, and these findings might propose DCK as a novel target for controlling joint destruction of RA.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 12/2013; 6(12):2733-44. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Kinases become one of important groups of drug targets. To identify more kinases being potential for cancer therapy, we developed an integrative approach for the large-scale screen of functional genes capable of regulating the main traits of cancer metastasis. We first employed self-assembled cell microarray to screen functional genes that regulate cancer cell migration using a human genome kinase siRNA library. We identified 81 genes capable of significantly regulating cancer cell migration. Following with invasion assays and bio-informatics analysis, we discovered that 16 genes with differentially expression in cancer samples can regulate both cell migration and invasion, among which 10 genes have been well known to play critical roles in the cancer development. The remaining 6 genes were experimentally validated to have the capacities of regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and anoikis activities besides cell motility. Together, these findings provide a new insight into the therapeutic use of human kinases.
From the clinical editor:
This team of authors have utilized a self-assembled cell microarray to screen genes that regulate cancer cell migration using a human genome siRNA library of kinases. They validated previously known genes and identified novel ones that may serve as therapeutic targets.
Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 06/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nano.2013.05.015 · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoid signaling has been implicated in modulating insulin release from β cells of the endocrine pancreas. β Cells
express CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs), and the enzymatic machinery regulating anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol bioavailability. However, the molecular
cascade coupling agonist-induced cannabinoid receptor activation to insulin release remains unknown. By combining molecular
pharmacology and genetic tools in INS-1E cells and in vivo, we show that CB1R activation by endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) or synthetic agonists acutely or after prolonged
exposure induces insulin hypersecretion. In doing so, CB1Rs recruit Akt/PKB and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 to phosphorylate focal adhesion kinase (FAK). FAK activation
induces the formation of focal adhesion plaques, multimolecular platforms for second-phase insulin release. Inhibition of
endocannabinoid synthesis or FAK activity precluded insulin release. We conclude that FAK downstream from CB1Rs mediates endocannabinoid-induced insulin release by allowing cytoskeletal reorganization that is required for the exocytosis
of secretory vesicles. These findings suggest a mechanistic link between increased circulating and tissue endocannabinoid
levels and hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes.
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