1] Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.  Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.  Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. .
We developed a cost-effective genome-scale PCR-based method for high-definition DNA FISH (HD-FISH). We visualized gene loci with diffraction-limited resolution, chromosomes as spot clusters and single genes together with transcripts by combining HD-FISH with single-molecule RNA FISH. We provide a database of over 4.3 million primer pairs targeting the human and mouse genomes that is readily usable for rapid and flexible generation of probes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A host of observations demonstrating the relationship between nuclear architecture and processes such as gene expression have led to a number of new technologies for interrogating chromosome positioning. Whereas some of these technologies reconstruct intermolecular interactions, others have enhanced our ability to visualize chromosomes in situ. Here, we describe an oligonucleotide- and PCR-based strategy for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and a bioinformatic platform that enables this technology to be extended to any organism whose genome has been sequenced. The oligonucleotide probes are renewable, highly efficient, and able to robustly label chromosomes in cell culture, fixed tissues, and metaphase spreads. Our method gives researchers precise control over the sequences they target and allows for single and multicolor imaging of regions ranging from tens of kilobases to megabases with the same basic protocol. We anticipate this technology will lead to an enhanced ability to visualize interphase and metaphase chromosomes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; 109(52). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1213818110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a protocol for visualizing and quantifying single mRNA molecules in mammalian (mouse and human) tissues. In the approach described here, sets of about 50 short oligonucleotides, each labeled with a single fluorophore, are hybridized to target mRNAs in tissue sections. Each set binds to a single mRNA molecule and can be detected by fluorescence microscopy as a diffraction-limited spot. Tissue architecture is then assessed by counterstaining the sections with DNA dye (DAPI), and cell borders can be visualized with a dye-coupled antibody. Spots are detected automatically with custom-made software, which we make freely available. The mRNA molecules thus detected are assigned to single cells within a tissue semiautomatically by using a graphical user interface developed in our laboratory. In this protocol, we describe an example of quantitative analysis of mRNA levels and localization in mouse small intestine. The procedure (from tissue dissection to obtaining data sets) takes 3 d. Data analysis will require an additional 3-7 d, depending on the type of analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription of coregulated genes occurs in the context of long-range chromosomal contacts that form multigene complexes. Such contacts and transcription are lost in knockout studies of transcription factors and structural chromatin proteins. To ask whether chromosomal contacts are required for cotranscription in multigene complexes, we devised a strategy using TALENs to cleave and disrupt gene loops in a well-characterized multigene complex. Monitoring this disruption using RNA FISH and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that perturbing the site of contact had a direct effect on transcription of other interacting genes. Unexpectedly, this effect on cotranscription was hierarchical, with dominant and subordinate members of the multigene complex engaged in both intra- and interchromosomal contact. This observation reveals the profound influence of these chromosomal contacts on the transcription of coregulated genes in a multigene complex.
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