Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mental health aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mental health promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance
Health is inextricably linked to climate change. It is important for clinicians to understand this relationship in order to discuss associated health risks with their patients and to inform public policy.Objectives
To provide new US-based temperature projections from downscaled climate modeling and to review recent studies on health risks related to climate change and the cobenefits of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data Synthesis
We searched PubMed and Google Scholar from 2009 to 2014 for articles related to climate change and health, focused on governmental reports, predictive models, and empirical epidemiological studies. Of the more than 250 abstracts reviewed, 56 articles were selected. In addition, we analyzed climate data averaged over 13 climate models and based future projections on downscaled probability distributions of the daily maximum temperature for 2046-2065. We also compared maximum daily 8-hour average ozone with air temperature data taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Climate Data Center.Results
By 2050, many US cities may experience more frequent extreme heat days. For example, New York and Milwaukee may have 3 times their current average number of days hotter than 32°C (90°F). High temperatures are also strongly associated with ozone exceedance days, for example, in Chicago, Illinois. The adverse health aspects related to climate change may include heat-related disorders, such as heat stress and economic consequences of reduced work capacity; respiratory disorders, including those exacerbated by air pollution and aeroallergens, such as asthma; infectious diseases, including vectorborne diseases and waterborne diseases, such as childhood gastrointestinal diseases; food insecurity, including reduced crop yields and an increase in plant diseases; and mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, that are associated with natural disasters. Substantial health and economic cobenefits could be associated with reductions in fossil fuel combustion. For example, greenhouse gas emission policies may yield net economic benefit, with health benefits from air quality improvements potentially offsetting the cost of US and international carbon policies.Conclusions and Relevance
Evidence over the past 20 years indicates that climate change can be associated with adverse health outcomes. Health care professionals have an important role in understanding and communicating the related potential health concerns and the cobenefits from policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2014; 312(15). DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.13186 · 35.29 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.