This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future.
"A growing body of evidence shows adverse associations between chronic noise exposure and human health. Several epidemiological studies have identified noise exposure to be a major contributor to hearing loss (Sliwinska-Kowalska and Davis, 2012), sleep disturbance (Hume et al., 2012), cardiovascular disease (Davies and Kamp, 2012), impairment of performance (Clark and Sorqvist, 2012), altered endocrine responses (Babisch, 2003), mental illness as well as annoyance (Stansfeld and Matheson, 2003). Most of these associations were assessed in long-term studies, where noise was predicted through strategic noise mapping . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, our hypothesis was that workplace noise can alter brain element levels like immobilization and light–dark cycle shift, and we aimed to investigate the effects of workplace noise on element levels of brain areas as well as changes in blood of chronically noise-exposed rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was the control. The second group (noise exposed) was subjected to daily 8 h 85 dB workplace noise for 15 days, and the third group (noise exposed plus normal condition) was also subjected to the same noise exposure and then returned to normal condition for 15 days. In noise-exposed group, Na, K, Ca, Mg , Fe, Cu, and Zn levels in plasma significantly increased when compared with controls (p=0.03 for Na; p=0.005 for K and Mg; p=0.002 for Ca and Fe; p=0.01 for Cu and Zn). In this group, Fe level of temporal lobe significantly increased (p= 0.021) while Mg level significantly increased in frontal (p= 0.021) and temporal (p=0.001) lobes when compared with controls. In the noise-exposed plus normal condition group, plasma Na, K, Fe, Cu, and Zn levels were greatly similar to controls. But, plasma Ca and Mg levels significantly decreased when compared with controls (p=0.002 and p=0.007) and noise-exposed group (p=0.002 and p=0.001). Fe level of tem-poral lobe significantly increased when compared with controls (p=0.001) and noise exposed group (p=0.001). These alter-ations may be attributed to impaired intake of water and micronutrients or their excretions, emerging by acoustic stress.
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