Concomitant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas.
ABSTRACT Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas are rare tumors and their association is not expected to be frequent. However, certain studies have suggested that the concomitant occurence of these tumors may be more frequent than previously thought. In the current study, we describe a case of concomitant occurrence of IPMN and NET of the pancreas and review the clinicopathological features of previously published cases and the current one. A 68-year-old female was incidentally found to have dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. A distal pancreatectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of IPMN. Histopathological analysis revealed concomitant IPMN (low-grade) and NET G1 of the pancreas. Review of the clinicopathological features of the 15 previously reported cases of concomitant IPMN and NET of the pancreas as well as the present one indicated that: i) this condition mainly affects middle-aged females; ii) the main symptom is abdominal or back pain, or no symptoms; iii) a hormone production symptom was observed in only one case; iv) the most common degree of dysplasia of IPMN is low grade; and v) the size of the NET is not particularly large (average 15.1 mm), although the clinical behavior is not always indolent (metastasis was observed in 3 cases). It is well known that IPMNs are associated with a high incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies, including colorectal and gastric carcinomas. Concomitant pancreatic NET and extrapancreatic malignancies may occur, therefore, systemic surveillance of extrapancreatic neoplasms and detection of concomitant NETs of the pancreas are necessary for patients with IPMN.
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a distinct entity characterized by papillary proliferations of mucin-producing epithelial cells with excessive mucus production and cystic dilatation of the pancreatic ducts. IPMNs have malignant potential and exhibit a broad histologic spectrum, ranging from adenoma to invasive carcinoma. IPMNs are classified into main duct and branch duct types, based on the site of tumor involvement. IPMN patients have a favorable prognosis if appropriately treated. The postoperative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100% for benign tumors and noninvasive carcinoma, and approximately 60% for invasive carcinoma. A main duct type IPMN should be resected. Surgical treatment is indicated for a branch duct IPMN with suspected malignancy (tumor diameter > or = 30 mm, mural nodules, dilated main pancreatic duct, or positive cytology) or positive symptoms. Malignant IPMNs necessitate lymph node dissection (D1). IPMNs are associated with a high incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies and pancreatic ductal carcinoma.Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2008; 43(3):181-5. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Typing somatostatin receptor expression in neuroendocrine tumors is of relevance to target somatostatin analogue-based diagnostic approach and treatment. The expanding use of immunohistochemistry to detect somatostatin receptors is to date not paralleled by an accurate methodological setting and standardized interpretation of the results. A multicentric study was designed to compare somatostatin receptor immunohistochemical expression with in vivo scintigraphic data and verify its usefulness in the clinical management of neuroendocrine tumors. After methodological setting by testing different somatostatin receptor antibodies, 107 cases of neuroendocrine tumors with available somatostatin receptor scintigraphy data and pathological material were retrospectively analyzed for somatostatin receptor types 2A, 3 and 5 immunohistochemical expression, and compared with scintigraphic images and, whenever available, with the clinical response to somatostatin analogue treatment. Restricting 'positive cases' to the presence of a membrane pattern of staining, an overall somatostatin receptor type 2A immunohistochemistry/somatostatin receptor scintigraphy agreement of 77% (chi2 test P<0.0001) was reached. Lower concordance ratios were detected in preoperative and metastatic tumor samples, possibly as a consequence of somatostatin receptor expression heterogeneity. Pure somatostatin receptor type 2A cytoplasmic staining showed poor correlation with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (54% concordance rate). The immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor types 3 and 5, which showed almost exclusively a cytoplasmic pattern, did not improve the concordance with scintigraphic data. In a pilot series, somatostatin receptor type 2A immunohistochemistry correlated with clinical response in 75% of cases. In conclusion, we propose a scoring system for somatostatin receptor type 2A immunohistochemistry in neuroendocrine tumors correlated with in vivo data, based on the evidence that only membrane (rather that cytoplasmic) staining should be considered for a reliable, standardized and clinically relevant report.Modern Pathology 11/2007; 20(11):1172-82. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rectum and appendix are the two major sites of well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms (carcinoid tumors) in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Previously, we reported the consistent expression of peripherin in rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms without metastases. However, its expression has not as yet been examined in appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms. The aim of our present study was to clarify whether peripherin, a type III neuronal intermediate filament, and α-internexin, a type IV neuronal intermediate filament, are expressed in appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms. Other endocrine markers were also examined and compared with the findings from the rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms. The analyses were carried out by immunohistochemical methods using 12 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms. In all the neoplasms examined, diffuse immunoreactivity of peripherin was observed. In addition, immunoreactivity of α-internexin, which was frequently co-expressed with peripherin, was found in all appendiceal cases. Chromogranin A and neural cell adhesion molecule expression was found in all appendiceal tumors, and serotonin was also frequently expressed (83%, 10/12 cases). Incidences of the expression of these three markers were much higher in the appendiceal than in the rectal cases. Peripherin expression is a common feature of appendiceal and rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms, but the manner of neural marker expression is different depending on the site of origin. It is uncertain whether the expression of peripherin and/or α-internexin is present in the well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms of other organs; further analysis is required to clarify this issue.Molecular Medicine Reports 03/2008; 1(2):191-5. · 1.48 Impact Factor