Bioactivity and Bioavailability of Ginsenosides are Dependent on the Glycosidase Activities of the A/J Mouse Intestinal Microbiome Defined by Pyrosequencing.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of bacteria in the intestinal microbiome to convert naturally occurring primary ginsenosides in red ginseng extract to active secondary ginsenosides. METHODS: Anti-proliferative ginsenoside activity was tested using mouse lung cancer LM1 cells. Permeabilities were evaluated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Systemic exposure of secondary ginsenosides was determined in A/J mice. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to determine membership and abundance of bacteria in intestinal microbiome. RESULTS: Secondary ginsenoside C-K exhibited higher anti-proliferative activity and permeability than primary ginsenosides. Significant amounts of secondary ginsenosides (F2 and C-K) were found in blood of A/J mice following oral administration of primary ginsenoside Rb1. Because mammalian cells did not hydrolyze ginsenoside, we determined the ability of bacteria to hydrolyze ginsenosides and found that Rb1 underwent stepwise hydrolysis to Rd, F2, and then C-K. Formation of F2 from Rd was the rate-limiting step in the biotransformation of Rb1 to C-K. CONCLUSION: Conversion to F2 is the rate-limiting step in bioactivation of primary ginsenosides by A/J mouse intestinal microbiome, whose characterization reveals the presence of certain bacterial families capable of enabling the formation of F2 and C-K in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Estrogen receptor (ER) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling are implicated in lung cancer progression. Based on our previous findings, we sought to investigate whether estrogen and IGF-1 act synergistically to promote lung adenocarcinoma (LADE) development in mice. Methods: LADE was induced with urethane in ovariectomized Kunming mice. Tumor-bearing mice were divided into seven groups: 17β-estradiol (E2), E2+fulvestrant (Ful; estrogen inhibitor), IGF-1, IGF-1+AG1024 (IGF-1 inhibitor), E2+IGF-1, E2+IGF-1+Ful+AG1024, and control groups. After 14 weeks, the mice were sacrificed and tumor growth was determined. The expression of ERα/ERβ, IGF-1, IGF-1R, and Ki67 was examined using tissue-microarray-immunohistochemistry, and IGF-1, p-ERβ, p-IGF-1R, p-MAPK, and p-AKT levels were determined based on Western blot analysis. Fluorescence-quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of ERβ, ERβ2, and IGF-1R. Results: Tumors were found in 93.88% (46/49) of urethane-treated mice, and pathologically proven LADE was noted in 75.51% (37/49). In the E2+IGF-1 group, tumor growth was significantly higher than in the E2 group (P <0.05), the IGF-1 group (P <0.05), and control group (P <0.05). Similarly, the expression of ERβ, p-ERβ, ERβ2, IGF-1, IGF-1R, p-IGF-1R, p-MAPK, p-AKT, and Ki67 at the protein and/or mRNA levels were markedly higher in the ligand group than in the ligand + inhibitor groups (all P <0.05). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated for the first time that estrogen and IGF-1 act to synergistically promote the development of LADE in mice, and this may be related to the activation of the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways in which ERβ1, ERβ2, and IGF-1R play important roles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 11/2013; 133(10). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28262 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial conversion of ginsenosides is crucial for the health-promoting effects of ginsenosides. Previous studies on the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) by gut bacteria have focused on the ginsenoside Rd (Rd) pathway (Rb1 [rightwards arrow] Rd [rightwards arrow] ginsenoside F2 (F2) [rightwards arrow] compound K (Cpd K)). This study aims to examine the gypenoside pathway in human gut bacteria in vitro. The metabolic pathways of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites ginsenoside Rd and gypenoside XVII in human gut bacteria were investigated by incubating the compounds anaerobically with pooled or individual gut bacteria samples from healthy volunteers. Ginsenoside Rb1, the metabolites generated by human gut bacteria, and degraded products in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) were qualitatively analyzed using an LC/MSD Trap system in the negative ion mode and quantitatively determined by HPLC-UV analysis. When incubated anaerobically with pooled gut bacteria, Rb1 generated five metabolites, namely Rd, F2, Cpd K, and the rare gypenosides XVII (G-XVII) and LXXV (G-LXXV). The gypenoside pathway (Rb1 [rightwards arrow] G-XVII [rightwards arrow] G-LXXV [rightwards arrow] Cpd K) was rapid, intermediate, and minor, and finally converted Rb1 to Cpd K via G-XVII [rightwards arrow] F2 (major)/G-LXXV (minor). Both the Rd and gypenoside pathways exhibited great inter-individual variations in age-and sex-independent manners (P > 0.05). Rb1 was highly acid-labile and degraded rapidly to form F2, ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and Cpd K, but did not generate the gypenosides in SGF. The formation of the gypenosides might be explained by the involvement of a gut bacteria-mediated enzymatic process. Rb1 was metabolized to G-XVII, F2 (major) or G-LXXL (minor), and finally Cpd K by human gut bacteria in vitro.Chinese Medicine 11/2013; 8(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1749-8546-8-22 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, Woongjin fermented red ginseng extract (WFRG) was evaluated for its potential ability to act as an adjuvant for the immune response of mice. For the in vitro study, macrophages were treated with serial concentrations (1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL) of WFRG. For in vivo studies, mice were administered different concentrations (10 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, and 200 mg/kg/day) of WFRG orally for 21 days. In vitro, the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α by RAW 264.7 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, WFRG enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes induced by two mitogens (i.e., concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and increased LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IL-1β. In conclusion, WFRG has the potential to modulate immune function and should be further investigated as an immunostimulatory agent.03/2014; 19(1):10-8. DOI:10.3746/pnf.2014.19.1.010