Remyelination in the CNS: from biology to therapy.
ABSTRACT Remyelination involves reinvesting demyelinated axons with new myelin sheaths. In stark contrast to the situation that follows loss of neurons or axonal damage, remyelination in the CNS can be a highly effective regenerative process. It is mediated by a population of precursor cells called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are widely distributed throughout the adult CNS. However, despite its efficiency in experimental models and in some clinical diseases, remyelination is often inadequate in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disease and a cause of neurological disability in young adults. The failure of remyelination has profound consequences for the health of axons, the progressive and irreversible loss of which accounts for the progressive nature of these diseases. The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically.
SourceAvailable from: Guohao Wang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Growing evidence indicates that non-neuronal mutant huntingtin toxicity plays an important role in Huntington's disease (HD); however, whether and how mutant huntingtin affects oligodendrocytes, which are vitally important for neural function and axonal integrity, remains unclear. We first verified the presence of mutant huntingtin in oligodendrocytes in HD140Q knockin mice. We then established transgenic mice (PLP-150Q) that selectively express mutant huntingtin in oligodendrocytes. PLP-150Q mice show progressive neurological symptoms and early death, as well as age-dependent demyelination and reduced expression of myelin genes that are downstream of myelin regulatory factor (MYRF or MRF), a transcriptional regulator that specifically activates and maintains the expression of myelin genes in mature oligodendrocytes. Consistently, mutant huntingtin binds abnormally to MYRF and affects its transcription activity. Our findings suggest that dysfunction of mature oligodendrocytes is involved in HD pathogenesis and may also make a good therapeutic target.Neuron 03/2015; 85(6):1212-1226. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.02.026. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic neurological disability. A promising perspective for future therapy of MS is the regeneration of lesions with replacement of the damaged oligodendrocytes or neurons. Therapies targeting to the enhancement of endogenous remyelination, aim to promote the activation of either the parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or the subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells (NSCs). Less studied but highly potent, is the strategy of neuronal regeneration with endogenous NSCs that although being linked to numerous limitations, is anticipated to ameliorate cognitive disability in MS. Focusing on the forebrain, this review highlights the role of NSCs in the regeneration of MS lesions.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:454. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00454
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ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating trauma causing long-lasting disability. Although advances have occurred in the last decade in the medical, surgical and rehabilitative treatments of SCI, the therapeutic approaches are still not ideal. The use of cell transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SCI is promising, particularly since it can target cell replacement, neuroprotection and regeneration. Cell therapies for treating SCI are limited due to several translational roadblocks, including ethical and practical concerns regarding cell sources. The use of iPSCs has been particularly attractive, since they avoid the ethical and moral concerns that surround other stem cells. Furthermore, various cell types with potential for application in the treatment of SCI can be created from autologous sources using iPSCs. For applications in SCI, the iPSCs can be differentiated into neural precursor cells, neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neural crest cells and mesenchymal stromal cells that can act by replacing lost cells or providing environmental support. Some methods, such as direct reprogramming, are being investigated to reduce tumorigenicity and improve reprogramming efficiencies, which have been some of the issues surrounding the use of iPSCs clinically to date. Recently, iPSCs have entered clinical trials for use in age-related macular degeneration, further supporting their promise for translation in other conditions, including SCI.