Changes in Incidence of Anogenital Warts Diagnoses After the Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Germany-An Ecologic Study

and ¶Faculty of Human and Health Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
Sexually transmitted diseases (Impact Factor: 2.75). 01/2013; 40(1):28-31. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3182756efd
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a large health insurance database in Germany, incidence of anogenital warts among 15- to 19-year-old females decreased from 316/100,000 person-years in 2007 to 242 in 2008 (23% reduction, P = 0.0001). The decrease started between the first and second quarter of 2007 (human papillomavirus vaccination was introduced in March 2007).

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    ABSTRACT: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a very common disease. They are caused mostly by low-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6 and 11, particularly the former. Clinical presentation is mostly of growths in the areas of friction of the anogenital region. The treatment is classified as patient/home applied or administered by a professional. In cases with atypical presentations or resistance to recommended therapies, great care should be taken to establish a differential diagnosis taking into account normal anatomical variations, infectious etiologies, precancers and cancers, as well as benign dermatological growths. The prevention of AGWs can be achieved by the use of the quadrivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine administered prior to sexual debut, as well as the meticulous use of condoms. Where coverage of the quadrivalent vaccine has been high, marked reductions in AGWs are being seen in young women of vaccine-eligible age, as well as in young males (as herd immunity effect).
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2007, many countries have implemented national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs with the quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine that has been shown to be efficacious in clinical trials involving 25,000 subjects. Two vaccine serotypes, HPV16 and 18, are responsible for cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers, but the impact of the 4HPV vaccine on these cancers cannot be seen immediately as there is a considerable lag between infection with HPV and cancer development. The other two serotypes, HPV6 and 11, are responsible for genital warts (GWs), which develop within a few months after infection, making GWs an early clinical endpoint for the assessment of the impact of 4HPV vaccination. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify all published studies on 4HPV vaccination, including those that assessed the impact of 4HPV vaccination programs on the incidence of GWs at a population level around the world. A total of 354 records were identified in the PubMed search. After screening and obtaining full papers for 56 publications, 16 publications presenting data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV vaccination on GWs were identified. These reported data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV in six countries [Australia (n = 6), New Zealand (n = 2), United States (n = 3), Denmark (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), and Sweden (n = 2)]. In Australia, no GWs were diagnosed in women aged <21 years who reported being vaccinated. A 92.6% reduction in GWs incidence was reported for all women in this age group, where the vaccine uptake rate (VUR) was 70% for 3 doses. The highest reductions were reported in countries with high VURs, mostly through school-based vaccination programs, although high VURs were obtained with some non-school-based programs. The results are coherent with the GWs incidence reduction reported in clinical trials and are an early indicator of what can be expected for the long-term clinical impact on vaccine-type HPV-related cancers.
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